Presentation on theme: "3.4 French and Indian War 1754-1763 Objective: Learn how Britain defeated France and her native allies. Understand how the conflict led to growing tension."— Presentation transcript:
3.4 French and Indian War 1754-1763 Objective: Learn how Britain defeated France and her native allies. Understand how the conflict led to growing tension between Britain and her colonies.
Conflict in Europe, Conflict in Americas France and Spain frequently ally against Britain France allies with Native Americans, guerrilla style conflict in New World King William’s War, 1689-1697 Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 King George’s War, 1744-1748 French and Indian War, 1754-1763 –Begins with Washington surveying French Land in the Ohio Rive Valley
The origins of the Fr. And Indian War Rivalry between French and English –Ohio River valley Differences between Fr. and English colonies? –Cartier (1534) Champlain (1608) –Fr. Marquette and Louis Jolliet Great Lakes Upper Miss. –LaSalle claims Lower Miss. River Valley 1682 –By 1760 only 80,000 French compared to 1 million English(Why?)
Competition for the Ohio Fr, Marquette, SJ – 1 st European to explore great lakes and Mississippi 1749, Virginia speculators in Ohio Company claim 500,000 acres in Ohio Valley –Fr. Had built Ft. Duquesne (Pitt) 1754, George Washington, surveyor, leads 150 Virginia Militiamen to ask the French to leave the Ohio Valley Washington loses Fort Necessity Seven Years War begins – global conflict “America was conquered in Germany.” William Pitt 1754 Albany Congress – seeks colonial unity, Indian alliances Union achieved in theory, not in fact
http://www2.uiuc.edu/unit/armyrotc/program/mils123/necessity/fort.bmp Fort Necessity, May 1754 (reconstruction)
http://www.republiquelibre.org/cousture/images6/PONTIAC1.JPG http://www.hsp.org/files/fortduquesnewatercolor.jpg Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh)
Braddock’s Defeat 1755 Gen. Braddock, 2,000 men march on Fort Duquesne Mix of colonial militia and Regulars (American opinion of British Army?) Braddock’s slow moving forces decimated by French and Indian forces, flanking Frontier goes up in flames, Indian raiding parties move uncontested Britian’s invasion of Canada, 1756, fails http://www.britishbattles.com/images/braddock/braddock-no-1-map.jpg
Franklin’s Cartoon, The Albany Plan 1754 Pennsylvania Gazette
William Pitt 1757, Pitt becomes leader in Parliament 1758, Pitt organizes attacks on Montreal & Quebec, Louisbourg 1758 Fort Duquesne falls, renamed Pittsburgh Pitt puts James Wolfe in charge of taking Quebec Montcalm defends Quebec for France 1759 Quebec falls, Wolfe and Montcalm killed Battle for Quebec is one of most significant engagements in British and American history Montreal falls 1760 http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/pitt3.jpg
Wash. defeated FL now British Braddock defeated Ft. Duquesne fallsQuebec falls CONFLICT IN THE OHIO VALLEY PEACE? 1763 France leaves Am. Montreal falls Pitt takes charge
Peace? Line of Demarcation 1763 France thrown off continent entirely Spain given possession of N. Orleans and trans-Mississippi Louisiana Spain loses Florida Great Britain dominant in North America and at sea Friction growing b/w Britain and Colonials (smuggling) Pontiac’s Uprising – Increasing tension with N. Americans –Capture 8 forts (General Amherst: Smallpox blankets?) Cost of War leads to increasing friction with Britain Line of demarcation to keep peace and attempt to restart fur trade with Indians for the crown (King’s view?)
Colonies and Britain Grow Apart Line of Demarcation inhibits movement west!!! This angers Colonials greatly. 10,000 British troops stationed in colony Quartering of troops angers colonists Cost of troops in Colonies heavy burden for Great Britain George Grenville becomes Prime Minister in 1763 Conflict over Smuggling and Searches of Private Property –Writs of assistance and ship seizures 1764 Sugar Act Seeds of Rebellion
Sugar Act WHO: Passed by George Grenville, British Prime Minister WHAT: Halved duties on molasses (to discourage smuggling) Created new duties on imports (to raise more $) Smuggling cases now to be heard in British Admiralty Courts, not colonial courts with colonial juries (Writs of Assistance) WHEN: 1764 WHY: Britain needed money to pay her huge debt from the French and Indian War and on-going cost of protecting the Frontier.