Participatory Rural Appraisal Variety of methods which emphasizes local knowledge and helps community members to do their own inquiring, analysis and action plan. Different exercises and research tools are used to facilitate the sharing of information, the analysis and the action among members of the community. Everyone (women, poor, directors…) must participate. Important to have a representative sample. Succeeds if action is taken and helps to build local capacity.
Stages of the PRA approach A first public meeting Information gathering with the help of: - Individual interviews - Individual interviews - Group interviews - Group interviews - Methods such as …community mapping, the transect, seasonal calendar, ecological time-line, the Council of All Beings - Methods such as …community mapping, the transect, seasonal calendar, ecological time-line, the Council of All Beings Public meeting to present the results of the inquiry and to collect comments and criticism. Choice and execution of an action
Methods Community mapping The transect Seasonal calendar Ecological timeline The Council Of All Beings Tree diagram
Community mapping Map of the area and the problem made initially with natural local objects (pieces of wood, rocks, seeds…) then transferred to paper to be kept. Encourage each participant to contribute to the map and explain as they add. Helps to visualize the situation A good tool to begin with as it reveals how people perceive their milieu.
The transect Walk from a given place (A) to another (B) to describe a situation: from the top to the bottom of a mountain, the length of a certain street… Observe, ask questions, listen, look for the problems and the solutions… A senior or a person knowledgeable of the area can direct the walk. Interviews can be done during the walk.
Seasonal Calendars To depict a situation during a one- year period Done on a long line divided into 4 seasons or in a circle divided in 4 seasons or by month Draw the calendar following a group discussion
The Ecological Time-line Draw a line on which the evolution of the problem is described over time Emphasis on relationships and trends
The Council of All Beings Each participant does a research on the impact of the problem on a plant or an animal. Each participant plays the role of this plant or this animal. The participant tells how the plant or the animal is affected by the problem.
Tree Diagram Visual tool to organize information The trunk represents the main problem and the branches show the elements, the influences and the consequences.
Essential in this approach... That the community identifies with their milieu and takes ownership of the local environmental problem and the action…