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Creative Commons licences as a driver of open access policy: the Australian experience Neale Hooper 23 September 2011 Disclaimer: The views expressed in.

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Presentation on theme: "Creative Commons licences as a driver of open access policy: the Australian experience Neale Hooper 23 September 2011 Disclaimer: The views expressed in."— Presentation transcript:

1 Creative Commons licences as a driver of open access policy: the Australian experience Neale Hooper 23 September 2011 Disclaimer: The views expressed in this presentation are the personal views of the presenter and should not be taken as representing the views of any Government department or agency. Credits: Background photo by **sasho, Tasmania PM, CC-BY-NC-ND,

2 Copyright Copyright exists automatically in a vast range of content and informational works: – literary (including computer programs and compilations) – dramatic – musical – artistic – films – sound recordings – broadcasts – published editions Copyright owner has extensive rights: – copy – publish – publicly perform – electronically communicate (eg on internet) – broadcast Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

3 Open source software/open content concepts Openness (access/use/reuse) has to be structured / constructed - it does not happen by default - requires copyright and other interests to be actively managed to ensure the desired level of “openness” is achieved For intangibles / digital materials, law provides the means of structuring openness Open content licensing (eg Creative Commons licences) draws on Richard Stallman’s insights into how copyright can be used to ensure that freely distributed software source code remains open to other software coders (FOSS, GNU GPL) Absence of legal rights means just that (nothing) – if legal rights do not exist, the only control is through lock up (secrecy) or lock down (technological locks) – counterproductive to achieving openness Credits: Background photo by Jayegirl99, Tasmania-4200 CC-BY-SA,

4 What is Creative Commons? a standardised system for licensing the use of copyright materials 6 standardised licences – available in plain english (summary), legalese and machine-readable versions Each licence grants a general permission to users to use copyright material – that is, to copy, publish, distribute in digital form, publicly perform – whether the whole or a substantial part of it on specified, standardised conditions Credits: Background photo by Matthew Knott, Tasmania CC-BY-NC-SA,

5 Standard CC Conditions of use Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no false attribution Non Commercial (NC) – no “commercial use” (as defined) No Derivatives (ND) – no changes allowed to original work Share Alike (SA) – changes allowed, but new work is to be distributed under the same licence as the original work Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

6 Combined in a standardised suite of licences BY BY-NC BY-SA BY-ND BY-NC-SA BY-NC-ND Credits: Background photo by photographerglen, Tasmania, CC-BY- NC-SA,

7 CC operates as a direct licence, from copyright owner to user

8 So, who is using CC? Credits: Background photo by **sasho, Tasmania PM, CC-BY-NC-ND,

9 “Visitors to this website agree to grant a non- exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license to the rest of the world for their submissions to Whitehouse.gov under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.” Whitehouse.gov Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License “Visitors to this website agree to grant a non- exclusive, irrevocable, royalty-free license to the rest of the world for their submissions to Whitehouse.gov under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.” Whitehouse.gov Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License

10 Creative Industries Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND, /

11 ABC Pool

12 CC licensing is an option for contributors to Pool “When you upload your work to Pool, you can choose....to release your work under a Creative Commons licence.”

13 Education and research Credits: Background photo by danishwindindustryassociation, Woolnorth, Tasmania, CC-BY-NC,

14 Australian National University’s IP Policy (1 July 2010) Part 4 - Section 14. "Open Content" Licensing by [Staff] Member 14.1 …. A [Staff] Member who Creates copyright matter which is owned by the University is granted a perpetual, irrevocable, worldwide, non- exclusive licence in respect of the copyright to grant licences to third parties over the copyright matter: – (a) being an open content licence of the form maintained by the Creative Commons Corporation; or – (b) being an open source licence in respect of Software, of the form maintained by the Open Software Initiative or the Free Software Foundation; or – (c) in any other form of open content licensing determined from time to time in writing by the Vice Chancellor. Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

15 Research publications and data Australian research publications and data – QUT ePrints – eg “Open Content Licensing: Cultivating the Creative Commons” (2007), Sydney University Press and QUT ePrints - - licensed under CC BY NC ND 2.5 Licence - 20,000 downloads, ranks 15 th in QUT ePrints – AIMS – Reef and Rainforest Research Centre data – AODN/IMOS Credits: Background photo by Jayegirl99, Tasmania-4200 CC-BY-SA,

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18 Reef and Rainforest Research Centre

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20 Government Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Geoscience Australia (GA) Federal Budget papers – 2010, 2011 ComLaw Australian Parliament Emergency response report and wiki Credits: Background photo by Matthew Knott, Tasmania CC-BY-NC-SA,

21 AUSTRALIA

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28 Social Media and Emergency Response “Disaster Management and Social Media - a case study”, Queensland Police Service (July 2011) – QPS report on their experience using Social Media in the 2011 flood and Cyclone Yasi emergencies – licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Licence – See nts/QPSSocialMediaCaseStudy.pdf nts/QPSSocialMediaCaseStudy.pdf Emergency 2.0 Wiki – Licensed under CC BY NC – See

29 Advantages of using CC Discoverability and retrieval of CC materials by search engines (CC machine readable code) Explicit statement of re-use rights: information provided upfront to users about what they CAN do with the material Standard, internationally recognised icons depict the licence conditions – surmounts language barriers Facilitates legal re-mix and re-use of CC-licensed materials Identification and attribution of the creator/owner of the licensed material Licences are valid and enforceable by the courts Jacobsen v Katzer (US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, 2008) Trumpet International v Oz (Australian Federal Court, Heerey J, 1996) Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

30 Advantages of CC in the public sector mirrors the fundamental purpose for recognising copyright in government materials supports government’s open access policy objectives – contributes to the body of publicly funded content available for innovative reuse clear statement about the source of the data (attribution/provenance) – increased user confidence avoids financial and technical lock-up of taxpayer-funded materials Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

31 Credits: Background photo by Rock Portrait Photography, Tasmania Jan 08, CC-BY-NC-ND,

32 Anne Fitzgerald, Neale Hooper & Cheryl Foong: CC & Government Guide: Using Creative Commons 3.0 Australia Licences on Government Copyright Materials For further information see: Credits: Background photo by murphyeppoon, Stanley, Tasmania, CC-BY-NC-SA, /


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