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Travel Behaviors of the Disabled in Jakarta Metropolitan Area TRANSED 2012 KAWAGUCHI, Hirohisa WAKAMATSU, Miya September 20, 2012 At The Lalit Hotel, Delhi,

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Presentation on theme: "Travel Behaviors of the Disabled in Jakarta Metropolitan Area TRANSED 2012 KAWAGUCHI, Hirohisa WAKAMATSU, Miya September 20, 2012 At The Lalit Hotel, Delhi,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Travel Behaviors of the Disabled in Jakarta Metropolitan Area TRANSED 2012 KAWAGUCHI, Hirohisa WAKAMATSU, Miya September 20, 2012 At The Lalit Hotel, Delhi, India 1

2 Table of Contents 1. Purpose of the Study 2. Transportation and barriers in Jakarta Legal Framework Public Transportation Pedestrian environment 3. Data Source and Methods 4. Results Commuter Travel Survey Transportation Equity Survey 5. Discussions and Conclusions 2

3 1. Purpose of the Study 3

4 Purpose of the Study Jakarta Metropolitan Area Rapidly growing economy and population Traffic congestion has been the top priority issue Land transportation is virtually not accessible Limited studies on travel behaviors of PWD Studies on travel behaviors of PWD in developed countries (DPTAC, 2002 etc.) Analysis on travel behaviors of PWD in developing countries in conjunction with poverty issues 4

5 2. Transportation and Barriers in Jakarta 5

6 Jakarta Metropolitan Area Capital region of one of the emerging countries, Indonesia, a member of G20 Population of Jakarta Metropolitan Area is about 28 million (2010) composed of Jakarta Special Capital Province (DKI Jakarta) (9 mil.) and surrounding cities and regencies. 6 [Unit : million persons] Source: Statistical Year Book of Indonesia 1998; opulation Census 2000, Population Census Intermediate Survey 2005, Population Census Preliminary Figure Note: 2005 data is intermediate survey of population census (or Survei Penduduk Antar Sensus) 2010 data is preliminary figures from DKI Jakarta, West Java and Banten Provinces

7 Surge in the number of Private Vehicles 7 Source: Polda Metro Jaya (Jakarta Metropolitan Police) Note: Vehicle registration excludes Bogor area

8 Congestion Average travel speed of CBD area in evening peak hour is mostly less than 20km/h. 8 Source: Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) (2008). Study on Jakarta Road Pricing in the Republic of Indonesia Travel Speed of Weekday Evening Peak Hour (2007)

9 Improvement of BRT System From private car oriented city to transit oriented city Jakarta City developed 11 routes ( km) of BRT system in 8 years. Roughly 350,000 daily passengers 9

10 Legal Framework on Barrier Free Act No. 4, of 1997, on Disabled People stipulates fundamental rights of disabled people including accessibility to permit them to live independently Act No. 22, of 2000, on Road Traffic obligates to consider persons with disabilities and the elderly etc. Regional Regulation No. 10, of 2011 of Jakarta stipulates accessible public transportation, education, health institutions and public facilities Shift from pity-based to rights-based approach 10

11 Barrier Free Conditions of Public Transport (1) BRT (Transjakarta) Almost all bus shelters are equipped with handrails and ramps. There are sometimes steps between a sidewalk and a ramp in a BRT A few shelters are equipped with elevators, but the elevators at one shelter are out of order. Connecting sidewalks are not maintained well. 11

12 Barrier Free Conditions of Public Transport (2) Public buses The most popular transport mode in Jakarta Loose restriction of bus operation by the gov. Buses can stop anywhere along their routes. No barrier free facilities are installed. Railways Some railway stations don’t have sufficient height of platforms Measures to provide route guidance are generally not sufficient 12

13 Barrier Free Conditions of Pedestrian Env. (1) Car-oriented road system rather than pedestrian-oriented Pedestrian environment is almost inaccessible due to the following 3 factors Design without consideration of disabled people 13

14 Barrier Free Conditions of Pedestrian Env. (2) Lack of maintenance Loose law enforcement 14

15 3. Data Source and Methods 15

16 JUTPI Project by JICA and Indonesian CMEA The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (CMEA) jointly conducted the JABODETABEK Urban Transportation Policy Integration (JUTPI) Project from 2009 to 2012 for the purpose of revising the transportation master plan and supporting establishment of cross-sector and –boundary transportation coordinating body. Series of transportation surveys including were conducted. 16

17 Commuter Travel Survey (CTS) Home interview survey followed by a questionnaire Origin & destination, transport mode of commuting trips were interviewed Sample size is roughly 657,000 persons (about 3% of population of Jakarta Metropolitan Area) including 335,000 commuters Random sampling from resident registration database 17

18 CTS Sample Size by Disability Type Disability TypeAll Respondents Commuter Respondents Visual Impairment3,2001,239 Hearing Impairment Speaking Impairment25095 Ambulant Disability Intellectual Disability Other Mental Disorder16885 Complex/Others No Disability646,195330,350 Unknown5,1172,542 Total657,150334,968 Total Weighted Population27,900,00014,300,000 18

19 Transportation Equity Survey (TES) 200 Sample of people with disability were utilized for this paper Several facilities where the target group are living and gathering were selected for the survey considering geographical distribution and proportion of disability types Interview survey followed by a questionnaire Major destinations, transportation modes, availability of assistance, impacts, and opinions regarding the installation of new transportation policies for the disabled 19

20 TES Sample Size by Disability Type Disability TypeNo. of Respondents Visual Impairment47 Hearing & Speaking Impairment57 Ambulant Disability26 Intellectual Disability9 Other Mental Disorder15 Complex/Others30 Total200 20

21 4. Results 21

22 CTS Result : Job Opportunities Jobless ratios of disabled people are higher than that of people with no disability, especially for lower income groups For people with Intellectual disability or with ambulant disability or with more than one disability, jobless ratios are higher 22 Note: Only population of working age from 18 to 59 years old was utilized to depict the above graphs. Weighted number of persons was utilized. Social Status by Disability Type by Income Group of Working Ages Monthly Household Income >= 1.5 million rupiahs (164USD) Monthly Household Income < 1.5 million rupiahs (164USD)

23 CTS Result : Vehicle Ownership Vehicle ownership is dependent on income class rather than disabilities The car ownership ratios of households with a disabled member are higher than those without a disabled member. This is opposite for motorcycle 23 Note: Weighted number of households was utilized. Low income group monthly household income is less than 1.5 million rupiahs (164USD); medium income group is million rupiahs ( USD); high income group is equal to or more than 6.0 million rupiahs (654USD). Household Vehicle Ownership by Income Level by Disabled People No. of CarsNo. of Motorcycles

24 CTS Result : Workplace Location Workplaces of people with a disability and in lower household income groups are closer to their homes. People with speaking or visual impairment tend to choose more distant workplaces 24 Note: Only workers' data was utilized to create the above graphs. Weighted number of persons was utilized. Inc. means income. Same village/sub-district/city means the same village/sub-district/city as the home of the respondent. Location of Workplace by Income Level and Disability Type

25 CTS Result : Commuting Mode Choice Roughly 50% of people with a disability in high income households commute by car Roughly a half of the disabled in middle income households commute by motorcycle. For the disabled in low income households, the majority have no alternative to using non-motorized transportation. 25 Note: Only workers' data were utilized to depict the above graphs. Weighted number of persons was utilized. Inc. means income. Transportation Mode to Workplace by Income Level and Disability Type

26 TES Result : No. of Trips and Policy Options 80+% of respondents answered that they would increase their No. of trips if the fares were made less expensive. Priority seating, assistance in riding buses, special transport service and improvement of signs and provision of information also may increase the No. of their trips. 26 Note: Only workers' data were utilized to depict the above graphs. Weighted number of persons was utilized. Inc. means income. Potential of Increasing the Number of Trips by Policy Options

27 TES Result : Possibility of Travel Alone The respondents were also asked whether they could travel alone if they were provided with better policy options. Special transport service showed the highest potential to enable them to make a trip alone. 27 Possibility of Travel Alone by Policy Options

28 TES Result : Priority of Policy Options The share of the special transport service was the highest for most disability types Shares of Barrier free sidewalks, assistance in public places, barrier free facilities at stops and stations were also rated highly. 28 Policy Options of Top Priority by Disability Type

29 5. Discussions and Conclusions 29

30 Discussions and Conclusions (1) CTS illustrated distinct travel characteristics by income level and implies mobility restrictions of low income group affect their mode choice and workplace choice. TES indicated affordable public transportation may increase the chances of going out for people with disabilities Provision of taxi tickets or special fares for public transportation could contribute to improve the mobility of people with disabilities, especially in the poverty stricken households 30

31 Discussion and Conclusions (2) A special transport service is one of the most sought- after policies for disabled people. Infrastructures cannot be renovated in a short time. Some disabled people have no other alternative to using the special transport service due to their physical conditions. Since this could be a financial burden for local authorities, it would be more financially efficient to effectively utilize existing facilities. Ex. The redundant services can be converted to the special transport service. 31

32 Discussion and Conclusions (3) It is not realistic to renovate all the sidewalks in a short time considering the financial constraints. Some sidewalks are inaccessible due to inappropriate design. Training for the transportation planners and designers in universal design could be effective By utilizing technical assistance from developed countries for the training, local authorities can save their limited assets. 32

33 Next Step Detailed study on each policy option including implementation method, cost estimations and demand analysis taking the features of developing countries into account Further studies in rural areas or less developed areas is awaited 33

34 Thank you ! Contact: 34


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