#  Electric Potential: the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.  The following definitions are critical.

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 Electric Potential: the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.  The following definitions are critical to understanding Resistors in series:  Voltage: (V or v - Volts) The electrical potential between two points in a circuit.  Current: (I or i - Amperes) The amount of charge flowing through a part of a circuit.  Power: (W - Watts) Simply P = IV. It is the current times the voltage.  Source: A voltage or current source is the supplier for the circuit.  Resistor: (R measured in Ω - Ohms) A circuit element that "constricts" current flow  Electric Potential: the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.  The following definitions are critical to understanding Resistors in series:  Voltage: (V or v - Volts) The electrical potential between two points in a circuit.  Current: (I or i - Amperes) The amount of charge flowing through a part of a circuit.  Power: (W - Watts) Simply P = IV. It is the current times the voltage.  Source: A voltage or current source is the supplier for the circuit.  Resistor: (R measured in Ω - Ohms) A circuit element that "constricts" current flow

3/17 Represents the most complex structure. It fulfills specific electronic functions. It is connected with non-electronic systems (human, social, industrial). Its components are located in the same area or spread on large geographical areas, even around the world. Examples: ◦ TV broadcasting systems ◦ Phone systems: mobile and wired.

An electric circuit is a connection of components (Voltage/Current sources, Resistors, Inductors and Capacitors) some power is supplied and then dissipated. One of the most important ideas of an electric circuit is that there is a source of power and a dissipater of power.

5/17 Electronic Equipment It is still a complex structure; the sub-blocks of an electronic equipment are structured so they can perform some of the functions of the system; usually the elements are located in a limited geographic area. Examples The receiving equipment for a TV system consisting of the satellite dish, the satellite receiver and the TV set. Music equipment: tuner, CD player, and others.

6/17 Electronic Apparatus Represents a unitary construction, the functional sub-blocks being located in a mechanical box, rack. The functions and performances of the apparatus are described using specific technical terminology, such as: amplification, frequency bandwidth, band rate, clock frequency, etc Sometimes, the apparatus are grouped together in order to make an equipment. Examples: The TV set, The receiver The oscilloscope.

CIRCUIT Input Output An “Electronic Circuit “ is a combination of electronic components and conductive wires interconnected in a way as to achieve an outcome : - Achieve a current /voltage of a certain value (signal) - Amplify a signal - Transfer data The purpose of an electronic component is to allow the designer to control the flow of current as to achieve a specified result/output. (Resistors, Capacitors, Inductors, Diodes, Transistors )

Electric circuit Analysis Active componentsPassive components Resistor. They are all components that absorb or dissipate the electric power. The picture shows circuit symbols used to depict a Resistor. They are all components that supply electric power. The image shows circuit symbols used to depict a Voltage Source (V) and a Current Source (I).

Are some electronic pieces that can be assembled on a PCB. Generally, these components are produced by manufacturing companies (brand names - Siemens, Philips, Intel, etc.) and are characterized by standardized parameters and performances. (are the same for all manufacturers). These are described in detail in manufacturer’s data-books or vendor’s application. Examples: resistors, capacitors, transistors, integrated circuits, and so on. The mechanical correspondent for the electronic component is the mechanical bench-mark, for example: the screw, the nut, and others.

Electrical components are characterized by a single type of charge carriers. Examples: resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. Electronic devices (so-called electronic components) are characterized by two types of charge carriers (electrons and holes ). Examples: diodes, transistors, etc.

Circuit elements Electronic components Relation between electronic components and circuit element 11/17

12 Resistors are passive elements that oppose/restrict the flow of current. A voltage is developed across its terminal, proportional to the current through the resistor. V = IR Units: Ohms (Ω) A. Resistors :

13 B. Capacitors behave like a tiny rechargeable battery. (store energy and release it later. ) are made of two parallel conductors separated by a dielectric. are used for filtering, tuning, separating signals, etc. The ability of a capacitor to store charge is called “Capacitance” C = Q/V (amount of charge stored/applied voltage) The unit of capacitance is the Farad. Commonly used capacitances are much smaller than 1 Farad, micro-Farads (10 -6 Farad, μF), nano-Farads (10 -9 Farad, nF), pico-Farads (10 -12 Farad, pF).

14 Symbol for the NPN TransistorSymbol for the PNP Transistor Transistors are commonly used for signal amplification, switching, voltage regulation, etc. base emitter collector Transistors

15 Diodes are semiconductor devices that allow current flow in only one direction Fuses are devices that protect the circuit from overload. Are made of a wire that melts when the current through it exceeds a specified value

16 LEDs- Light Emitting Diodes: A special kind of diode: They allow current to flow in one direction. The LED will light up when the proper amount of current passes through. 1-3 4 5

Infrared Detectors The appearance of these infrared photo detectors and the internal structure is similar to that of an LED. The infrared photo detector has a focal direction, and the detection angle is about 15°. (8x15=120˚) This small detection angle allows the controller to tell the direction where the infrared light comes from. 7 0 3

Tuning CKT Amplifier Selector Counter Integrated Circuits IC A small scale electronic CKT on a substrate of semiconductor material. It is obtained when active and passive components are manufactured simultaneously on the semiconductor wafer, usually silicon. The chip notion refers to silicon pad where the circuit is made. Integrated circuit refers to encapsulated chip. Orientation

Chapter 1 Principles of Electric Circuits, Conventional Flow, 9 th ed. Floyd © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Summary Some Important Electrical Units Current Charge Voltage Resistance Power AmpereA CoulombC VoltV Ohm  WattW Except for current, all electrical and magnetic units are derived from the fundamental units. Current is a fundamental unit. Quantity Unit Symbol

Chapter 1 Principles of Electric Circuits, Conventional Flow, 9 th ed. Floyd © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Summary Engineering Metric Prefixes peta tera giga mega kilo 10 15 10 12 10 9 10 6 10 3 P T G M k Can you name the prefixes and their meaning?

Chapter 1 Principles of Electric Circuits, Conventional Flow, 9 th ed. Floyd © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Summary Engineering Metric Prefixes 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12 10 -15 milli micro nano pico femto m  n p f Can you name the prefixes and their meaning?

22 Q1. Which of the following components used in a circuit stores energy? a.Resistors b.Inductors c.Capacitors d.Diodes e.Transistors

23 Q2. Which of the following components used in a circuit allows the current to flow one way a.Resistors b.Inductors c.Capacitors d.Diodes e.Fuses

Q3. A resistor is an example of a. a passive component b. an active component c. an electrical circuit d. all of the above

Q4. The electric current unit that is fundamental is the: a. volt b. ohm c. coulomb d. ampere

Q5. Transistors are commonly used for: a.oppose/restrict the flow of current. b.signal amplification, switching, voltage regulation. c. f iltering, tuning, separating signals. d.allow current flow in only one direction.

Q6. In scientific notation, the number 0.00056 is written a. 5.6 x 10 4 b. 5.6 x 10 -4 c. 56 x 10 -5 d. 560 x 10 -6

Q7. The metric prefix nano means a. 10 -3 b. 10 -6 c. 10 -9 d. 10 -12

Q8. The metric prefix pico means a. 10 -3 b. 10 -6 c. 10 -9 d. 10 -12

Q9. The number 2700 MW can be written a. 2.7 TW b. 2.7 GW c. 2.7 kW d. 2.7 mW

Q10. The value 68 k  is equal to a. 6.8 x 10 4  b. 68, 000  c. 0.068 M  d. All of the above

Q11. The sum of 330 mW + 1.5 W is a. 331.5 mW b. 3.35 W c. 1.533 W d. 1.83 W

Q12. The quantity 200  V is the same as a. 0.000 200 V b. 20 mV c. 0.2 V d. all of the above

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