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CH. 15 The Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1700 A.D.

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 15 The Renaissance and Reformation 1350-1700 A.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH. 15 The Renaissance and Reformation A.D.

2 The Italian Renaissance An era of Awakening Renaissance- “rebirth” Philosophical and Artistic movement and the era when that movement flourished Renewed interest in Ancient Greek and Roman literature and Life Italian Renaissance Scholars wanted to explore ancient Greek and Roman great achievements Medieval scholars tried to bring ancient history into harmony with Christian teachings Emphasized the power of human reason and advances were made in the arts and sciences

3 The Italian Renaissance Causes: Ruins of the old Roman Empire reminded Italians of Ancient Roman glory Trade and the Crusades Byzantine civilization whose scholars preserved ancient Greek and Roman learning Trade with Southwestern Asia and Africa helped teach Europeans about African and Arab advancements in science and in Medicine

4 Differences in Art:

5 Differences in Literature: Middle Ages Scholasticism Religion “The Divine Comedy” by Dante “The Canterbury Tales” by Chaucer Renaissance “The Prince” by Machiavelli About Government Francesco Petrarch Love poems

6 The Italian Renaissance Humanities Humanities- the study of ancient Greek and Roman literature focusing on grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric to become a “well rounded” person in society Humanists- people who specialized in the humanities Literature written in Greek and Latin Many copies so the scholars need to investigate as to which was the most accurate copy (sought to verify through investigation) Christians turned to the Jewish to learn Hebrew Important to know how things worked = interest in education Meaningful life involved in practical affairs, such as supporting the arts Many were Christian struggled with preparing for the afterlife but also living a joyful life with individual achievment

7 The Italian Renaissance Italian Renaissance Writers Classical Education- study of ancient Greek and Roman literature Studying the ancient Greeks and Romans works (the Classics) was the distinction of an educated person Francesco Petrarch Love Poet/teacher/scholar Considered to be some of the best love poems in literature Most famous Sonnets to Laura (imaginary ideal woman) Believed in a full active life but worried that his desire for fame would hinder his chances at salvation Niccolo Machiavelli Florentine diplomat and historian Most Famous “The Prince” described government as it truly was not loft ideals Ruthless behavior to get ahead – Ruler should only be concerned with power and political success Ancient Roman inspiration – Lack of conventional morality- Still humanist just different “ the ends justify the means”

8 The Italian Renaissance Baldassare Castiglione “The Book of the Courtier” most famous book of the Renaissance - about real people, real places but fictional story about how gentlemen and gentlewomen show act in polite society settings Examples of literature: Petrarch: Machiavelli: Castiglione Castiglione's characters opine about how their courtier can impress his audience and win its approval. Similar to the Classical Roman rhetoricians Cicero and Quintillian, Castiglione stresses the importance of delivery while speaking. In Book I, the Count states that when the courtier speaks he must have a “sonorous, clear, sweet and well sounding” voice that is neither too effeminate nor too rough and be “tempered by a calm face and with a play of the eyes that shall give an effect of grace.” (Castiglione 1.33) This grace, or grazia, becomes an important element in the courtier’s appearance to the audience.

9 The Italian Renaissance Italian Renaissance Art: Perspective- life like quality of painting 3Dish, Objects in the distance smaller than in the foreground. Huge contrast to medieval art No holy land Real life Italy portrayed in the paintings Human figures Realistic figures and images

10 The Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Architect, engineer, painter, sculptor, mathematician and scientist Flying machine and submarine Drew about plants and the human body Used his work in science to assist his paintings om/http://www.flickr.com/photos/curiousexpeditions/ / om/http://www.flickr.com/photos/curiousexpeditions/ /

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12 The Italian Renaissance Michelangelo Painter and sculptor Statue of David and the celling of the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican Wrote poetry and assisted in the design of St. Peter’s Bascilia

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14 The Italian Renaissance Rafael – Beautified the Vatican hired by the Pope Painter- best known for frescos and Madonna’s Titian “The assumption of the Virgin” 1 st to become wealthy from his work Giotto Realist fly story Masaccio Realist used light and shadow to create a sense of depth in hos paintings

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16 The Northern Renaissance The spread of ideas Students studying in Italy went back to their homes in northern Europe and brought back all of the knowledge and ideas they learned Johannes Gutenburg- invented the first movable type machine or printing press to print copies of the Bible Social, economic, and technological advancement By 1475 England, France, Germany, and Italy among other nations were using the printing press. This is not the first printing press in the world, China was using a form of moveable and reusable type for a long time before Johannes Gutenburg

17 The Northern Renaissance Northern Renaissance Writers: Desiderius Erasmus Most famous Dutch humanists scholar Enrolled in a monetary then left to study the classics in printed books Studied Greek, Roman and early Christianity Believed there was a lack of spirituality in the Christian religion (too ceremonial) “The Praise of Folly”- ridiculed ignorance, superstition, and vice among Christians (fasting, pilgrimages, religious shrines and the interpretations of the Bible) Thomas More- English writer and politician he was also a friend of Erasmus and had similar views about Christianity “Utopia” 1516 Acclaimed by humanist thinkers Translated into German, Italian, French and Dutch He served King Henry VIII of England He refused to see Henry as the head of the English Church so Henry executed Thomas 400 years later the church recognized his faith and service toward the church during his time working under King Henry VIII and made him a saint

18 The Northern Renaissance Erasmus : More: contents.html contents.html

19 The Northern Renaissance Height of the English renaissance was from the late 1500’s – the early 1600’s Classical dramas were mainly about angry gods punishing humans Renaissance dramas were about the drama between humans (man made drama) William Shakespeare: His ability to depict and articulate different personalities, and human emotion was unmatched He wrote plays and dramas Moody Hamlet Star crossed lovers Romeo and Juliet And tragic MacBeth All three are as real today as they would have been back then

20 The Northern Renaissance Northern Renaissance Artists: Italian art inspired artists throughout Western Europe Flemish School- Located in Flanders and the artists that studied there developed a distinct style of painting (oil on Canvas) Jan and Hubert van Eyck- Detail was very important and prominent in his work Realist: facial expression are his signature Pieter Brueghel- studied in Flanders Painted a lot of village festivals/dances Work had a hidden meaning, mainly criticized the intolerance and cruelty he observed in his everyday life Albrecht Durer German Studied in Germany and Venice Studied the classics and humanism First to see and openly explain the possibilities of having illustrations in books Hans Holbein the younger- worked in the early 1500’s Portraits Erasmus, More, and King Henry VIII

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22 The Northern Renaissance Difference between the Northern and Southern artists Italians depict humans as having Greek God qualities Rippling muscles Had an admiration for the human form Northern more realistic bald, frail, imperfect Emphasized importance of Christianity Painted a lot of the early fathers of Christianity


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