2What is Art?For most of art history, an artistic object like a painting or sculpture was considered quite different from a work of craftsmanship, such as a piece of furniture or a decorative plate.In the Age of Empire, paintings, sculpture, murals, and mosaics were considered art, but the Lidded Saltcellar would not have been.
3Art history is closely related to other disciplines such as anthropology, history, and sociology. In addition, art history sometimes overlaps with the fields of aesthetics, or the philosophical inquiry into the nature and expression of beauty; and art criticism, or the explanation of current art events to the general public via the press.
4Methods and Inquiries of Art History In the past, art historians often limited their focus to what was called “fine art,” which generally included paintings, prints, drawings, sculpture, and architecture, usually produced specifically for appreciation by an audience who also understood these objects as works of art.Today we define art much more broadly, also taking into consideration objects that in the past were dismissed as “craft”: textiles, pottery, and body art such as tattoos, for example.
5Art historians also consider objects that might not be considered art by their intended audience, including mass-produced posters and advertisements and even the design of ordinary household items like telephones, forks, and the living room sofa.Art historians acknowledge that the meaning of a work of art can shift over time, and that an artwork may be perceived differently by viewers who approach it from different perspectives.
6Art historians acknowledge that the meaning of a work of art can shift over time, and that an artwork may be perceived differently by viewers who approach it from different perspectives.Differences such as social status, education, physical access to a work of art, religious background, race, and gender have an impact on the construction of the meaning of a work of art.
7ART HISTORYArt history is an academic discipline dedicated to the reconstruction of the social, cultural, and economic contexts in which an artwork was created.The basic goal of this work is to arrive at an understanding of art and its meaning in its historical moment, taking into consideration the formal qualities of a work of art, the function of a work of art in its original context, the goals and intentions of the artist and the patron of the work of art, the social position and perspectives of the audience in the work’s original time and place, and many other related questions.
8Aesthetics of ArtA third type of scholar studies pure aesthetics, beauty in the absence of context.A professor of aesthetics would be concerned primarily with formal analysis of a work.An art critic would be most interested in contextual analysis: figuring out what a work means or was meant to mean, given when, by whom, and how it was created.An art historian combines these different types of inquiry.
9Like all subjects, art has its own lingo. It is hard to describe a work of art without the right vocabulary, just as it would be hard to comment on a baseball game without knowing the words “strike” and “pitcher.”By manipulating the elements of art, an artist can manipulate his viewer, too.The most beautiful colors, laid on confusedly, will not give as much pleasure as the chalk outline of a portrait.” Aristotle ( B.C), who was probably the world’s first professor of aesthetics
10The Nature of Art Historical Inquiry Art historians generally analyze works of art in two ways that are distinct from one another, but also interrelated.These two modes of analysis are called formal analysis and contextual analysis.
11Formal AnalysisFormal analysis focuses on the visual qualities of the work of art itself.A basic assumption of formal analysis is that the artist makes decisions related to the visual aspects of the artwork that can reveal to us something about meaning.From this point of view, aspects of meaning are intrinsic to the work of art.Terms associated with the formal qualities of works of art are often called the “elements of art.”
12Formal analysis requires excellent skills in observation and description. Beginning our study of an artwork with formal analysis keeps the focus on the object itself, which to the art historian is always primary .
13Contextual AnalysisContextual analysis involves looking outside of the work of art in order to determine its meaning.This involves examining not only the context in which the work was created, but also later contexts in which the work was and continues to be consumed.Contextual analysis focuses on the cultural, social, religious, and economic context in which the work was produced.
14Art historians may examine issues of patronage, viewer access to the work, the physical location of the work in its original context, the cost of the work of art, the subject matter in relation to other artworks of the time period, and so on.
15Art history often emphasizes a chronological development with the assumption that within one cultural setting the work of one generation of artists will have an impact on following generations.Art historians often use comparative study.Then, we can seek to relate these changes to historical context.Art history provides information and insights that add background to the meaning and significance of the works of art we study.As we place these works of art in their cultural and historical context, they are connected to the long history of events that has led up to our present culture.
16Art historians often begin their analysis with a close examination of a work of art. Direct examination of the work of art is ideal because much is lost when we look at a reproduction rather than an original work of art.In the case of sculpture, it is often difficult to get a proper sense of the scale and the three-dimensional qualities of a piece from a photograph.We lose the texture and some of the rich colors when we experience paintings in reproduction.
17It is quite common, though, for art historians to settle for studying from reproductions due to practical constraints.In some cases, works of art might be damaged or even lost over time, and so art historians rely on earlier descriptions to aid in their formal and contextual analysis.In addition to examining the work of art in question, art historians will also seek to understand any associated studies (sketches, preparatory models, etc.) and other works by the artist and his or her contemporaries
18Written documents used by art historians: Art historians also use many written sources in the quest for contextual information about a work of art.Often these texts are stored in archives or libraries.Archival sources may include items such as letters between the artist and patron, or other documents pertaining to the commission, and art criticism produced at the time the work of art was made.
19An art historian might also search for written documentation about the materials used to produce the work of art, such as their cost and source, and about the function of the artwork—how a particular sculpture was used in ritual practice, for example.Art historians also seek to situate the work in the context of the literature, music, theater, and history of the time period.
20Art historians may also rely on interviews with artists and consumers of works of art. This is especially the case in cultures that rely more on oral history than on written documents.Guided by the field of anthropology, some art historians also use methods such as participant observation to understand the context of a work of art.
21As an academic discipline, art history arose in the mid-eighteenth century. The ancient Roman historian Pliny the Elder (23–79 c.e.) sought to analyze historical and contemporary art in his text Natural History.During the Renaissance, the author and artist Giorgio Vasari (1511–74) gathered the biographies of great Italian artists, past and present, in The Lives of the Artists.Vasari’s text provides us with insights into the changing roles of artists in society during this period and the developing concept of artistic genius.
22Development of modern art history Modern art history was strongly influenced by eighteenth-century Enlightenment philosophy.Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717–68) was a German scholar who shifted away from Vasari’s biographical emphasis to a rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context.Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, art historians continued to develop approaches that placed increasing emphasis on an understanding of the interrelationship between the formal qualities of a work of art and its context.
23Historical Art Periods Much of what we know of the earliest life on earth has been revealed through a study of the objects or artifacts that remain from early cultures.In many cases, the objects that remain are those made of enduring materials such as stone, metal, or fired clay, as opposed to those made of perishable materials like wood or fibers.Environmental conditions also have a major impact on preservation.
24The hot dry climate of the desert in Egypt, for example, enabled the preservation of even delicate materials like papyrus, and the sealed atmosphere of a cave or tomb likewise helped to preserve the objects contained within them for our wonder and enjoyment centuries later.In contrast, the humid climate of West Africa means that objects made of perishable materials have had little chance of survival over the course of decades, not to mention centuries.
25Why we study whom we study: This is one reason that the history of art as a discipline has placed greater emphasis on Western cultures, often neglecting to focus on developments in Nonwestern cultures.It is important to recognize that the civilizations that are most often studied in art history courses are not necessarily those where the most or the best art was made.Rather, they are the civilizations whose art has been preserved and whose art has been discovered.
26Ancient Civilizations: Old Stone Age The oldest works of art that we will consider are the cave paintings found in Chauvet Cave in southeastern France.These paintings, discovered in 1994, date from c.30,000 b.c.e. and thus are placed in the Old Stone Age (Upper Paleolithic Period).Except for a minimal use of yellow, the paintings and engravings in Chauvet Cave were created using red ochre and black charcoal and depict animals such as horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalos, and mammoths.
27Lascaux and Altamira cave paintings: Later cave paintings (c.15,000–10,000 b.c.e.) have also been discovered in other parts of France and in Spain, with Lascaux and Altamira being the most famous.The art in these caves takes the form of large colored drawings of animals such as horses, bears, lions, bison, and mammoths, and the paintings include several outlines of human hands.The earliest scholarship on these drawings considered them to be the spontaneous scribbling of primitive cavemen.However, with further study, it became apparent that the various groups of drawings had been created by skilled artists working within an established tradition.
28However, with further study, it became apparent that the various groups of drawings had been created by skilled artists working within an established tradition.The artists used pigments of red and yellow ochre to add color to the elegant black outlines they had created using charcoal.Though we cannot be sure of their original function, it is possible that these works were created as a part of hunting ceremonies or other ritual behaviors.
29Woman of Willendorf (Venus) Another well-known group of artworks from the Old Stone Age are small stone female figures that have exaggerated bellies, breasts, and pubic areas.The best known of these figures is the Venus (or Woman) of Willendorf (c.28,000–25,000 b.c.e.), which is about four and one-eighth inches high.In contrast to the exaggerated female features of the body, the facial features of the statue are undefined, the arms are barely visible, and the feet are missing.Scholars contend that these statues were fertility figures although it is not known precisely how they were used.
30Art of the Middle Stone Age: During the Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic Period) the climate warmed, and a culture developed that produced art similar in some ways to the cave paintings of the Paleolithic Period.With the warming of temperatures during this era, cave dwellers moved out of their caves and began using rock shelters, as evidenced by the various paintings that have been discovered on such locations in eastern Spain.
31What makes the rock shelter paintings different from the cave paintings? The rock shelter paintings, like the cave paintings that preceded them, demonstrate the skill of their creators in the depiction of animal figures.What sets the rock shelter paintings apart from the cave paintings is their depiction of the human figure.Except for one human figure found in the paintings at Lascaux, cave paintings did not include any human beings.The rock shelter paintings, however, portray human beings, both alone and in groups, and there seems to be an emphasis on scenes in which human beings dominate animals.
32The rock shelter paintings, however, portray human beings, both alone and in groups, and there seems to be an emphasis on scenes in which human beings dominate animals
33The New Stone AgeThe art forms most often linked with the New Stone Age (Neolithic Period) are rings or rows of rough-hewn stones located in Western Europe.These formations have been dated as early as 4000 b.c.e.The stones used were often exceedingly large—as much as seventeen feet in height and fifty tons in weight.Indeed, the sheer size of these works led historians to call the stones megaliths, meaning “great stones,” and the culture that created these works is often termed “megalithic.”
34Stonehenge, EnglandThe most well known of these rock arrangements is the one found at Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. Stonehenge is believed to have been built in many phases around 2100 b.c.e. Stonehenge features concentric rings made with sarsen (a form of sandstone) stones and smaller “bluestones”—rocks indigenous to the region.
35Stonehenge, cont’dThe outermost ring is comprised of huge sarsen stones in post and lintel construction—two upright pieces topped with a crosspiece, or lintel.The next ring is composed of bluestones, which encircle a horseshoe-shaped row of five lintel-topped sarsen stones—these are the largest ones used at Stonehenge, with some weighing as much as fifty tons.Outside the formation, to the northeast, is the vertically placed “heel-stone.”If one stands in the center of the rings and looks outward, this “heel-stone” marks the point at which the sun rises on the midsummer solstice.
36Usually, art thrives in highly organized cultures with stable population centers—usually great cities—that house ruling classes who in turn support the work of artists.Also, if a civilization has a tradition of protecting its art in locations that are largely inaccessible, it is more likely that the works from that culture will survive to a point where they are included in a study of art history.Many extant artifacts have come from burial chambers, caves, and tombs, where they have been protected by being naturally concealed.
37ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN ART The civilizations that arose in Mesopotamia in the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers developed writing and arts in parallel with EgyptUnfortunately, the Mesopotamian civilizations formed in a valley that lacked the natural barriers of deserts and mountains that protected Egypt.This left them vulnerable to invasion, and hence, the history of this ancient region is one of successive conquest and destruction.Moreover, the use of more perishable materials by Mesopotamian civilizations has left us with fewer examples of their arts
38SumeriaFrom around 4000 b.c.e., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia created impressive sculptures and buildings.Religion was a central aspect of Sumerian life, and the Sumerians built massive temples at the centers of their cities.Less complex platform structures evolved over time into the stepped pyramids called ziggurats.
40Akkadians take over Sumeria Around 2334 b.c.e., the cities of Sumer came under the rule of Sargon of Akkad.Although the Akkadians spoke a different language from the Sumerians, they assimilated Sumerian culture.With the Akkadian dynasty, loyalty to the city-state was supplanted by loyalty to the king, and consequently the art of this period tends to reflect an emphasis on the monarchy, with Akkadian rulers depicted in freestanding and relief sculptures.
41Akkadians lose control Around 2150 b.c.e., Akkadian rule came to an end as the Guti, barbarous mountaineers, invaded and took control.About fifty years later, however, the city of Sumer were able to reassert control, and a Neo-Sumerian ruler was established in the King of Ur.Perhaps the greatest known works of this era were the ziggurats that were built at the city centers.The ziggurats functioned primarily as temples but also served as administrative and economic centers.
42BabyloniansThe next important civilization in Mesopotamia was that of the Babylonians.For centuries Mesopotamia had witnessed the coexistence of several independent city-states, but around 1792 b.c.e., Hammurabi, king of the city-state of Babylonia, was able to centralize power.Hammurabi left an enduring legacy in that he codified Babylonian law—the Code of Hammurabi is the oldest legal code known in its entirety.
43The best-known artwork from this period, preserved in the Louvre Museum, is related to this code of law; it is a stone stele onto which Hammurabi’s code is carved with a sculpture in high relief at the top that depicts Hammurabi receiving inspiration for his code of law from the sun-god, Shamash.
44Throughout the seventh century b. c. e Throughout the seventh century b.c.e., the Assyrian hold on power weakened, and from c.612–538 b.c.e., Babylonia once again became the dominant force in the region.It was during this Neo-Babylonian period that the famous hanging gardens of Babylon were constructed.Another important construction at this time was the gateway to the great ziggurat of the temple of Bel, called the Ishtar Gate, which is considered one of the greatest works of architecture in which figures—in this case animal figures—are superimposed on a walled surface.
45Another important construction at this time was the gateway to the great ziggurat of the temple of Bel, called the Ishtar Gate, which is considered one of the greatest works of architecture in which figures—in this case animal figures—are superimposed on a walled surface.
47Persian ArtThe Persian Empire (c.538 b.c.e.–330 b.c.e.) flourished in what is present-day Iran.The Persians were notable for their impressive architectural achievements, the most important of which was the palace at Persepolis, which was constructed of stone, brick, and wood and reflects the influence of Egyptian architecture.
48AssyriaWhile the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Babylonian cultures grew in southern Mesopotamia, the Assyrians dominated in the north.From about 900 b.c.e. to around 600 b.c.e. the Assyrians were the most powerful civilization in the Near East.Among the most notable of Assyrian artworks are relief carvings, which often depict battles, sieges, hunts, and other important events
49Art History vs. Art Criticism When art historians look at a work, they usually take two perspectives: their own, as modern viewers, and the viewpoint people would have had when the work was created.This double vision is crucial to art history.Unlike art criticism, which focuses on explaining works of art, art history is more like detective work.An art historian cares as much about the artist or culture that produced a work as he does about what the work represents.
50The Building Blocks of Art Creating an Image:LineShapeFormSpace
51LINELine is the most basic element of art. Drag a stick through the dirt, and you’ve created line.Anything from a quick sketch done with a pencil10 to a detailed tattoo relies on line.Architecture, too, depends on lines to convey height and grandeur.
52Line - ContinuedStraight lines convey harmony and balance, but they look inorganic.Take a look at yourself in the mirror—you won’t see many straight lines. You will see a lot of curves, from your hairline to the balls of your feet.Because they dominate the natural world, curved lines tend to look organic to human eyes.
54Examine Three Musicians (1921) by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) Examine Three Musicians (1921) by Pablo Picasso ( ). The human figures are created out of mostly straight lines. The difference between what we expect when we look at people (curves) and what we see here (straight lines) can be jarring. The contrast makes the viewer stop and look a little longer.We might respond with similar unease to a building crafted entirely from curves—such as Frank Gehry’s Dancing House.
55LINELines can be thin or thick, long or short, straight or wavy—and how they look affects how we react to them.A thin, delicate line might imply frailty, a thick line strength, a wavy line movement.The Greek philosopher Aristotle argued line was the most important element of art because it is the most informative.Anyone can recognize a stick-figure drawing of a man, flower, or tree, and people appreciate that to which they can easily relate.
56SHAPE: 2nd placeThe second most basic element is shape. A shape is always two dimensional, meaning it exists only on a flat plane.All polygons are shapes: triangles, squares, pentagons, and so on. A circle is also a shape, as is any area defined by outside lines.
57FORM: 3-dimensionalForm is shape made three-dimensional. Whereas a square is a shape, a cube is a form.A sculpture is the clearest application of form in art, but artists who work in two dimensions, like comic book illustrators, can create the illusion of form by using lines and shapes.
59Lost in Space Both shapes and forms occupy space. On a two-dimensional plane, the space occupied by an object or figure is positive space, and the space around it is negative space.The musicians in Picasso’s painting create positive space; the brown background is negative space.Negative space can also be created in smaller areas within the larger positive space of an object. If you drew a donut, the space inside it would be negative space.
60In Pacasso’s painting the musicians occupy the positive space and brown around them is the negative space. Negative space can also be created in smaller areas within the larger positive space of an object. If you drew a donut, the space inside it would be negative space.
61When carving is used to turn a two-dimensional surface into a three-dimensional form, as in the carvings around the doorways of old buildings, it is said to be in high relief or low (also called bas) relief, depending on how much the carving sticks out from or reaches into the surface.None of these terms for space apply to freestanding sculptures, which have their own space definition: fully in the round.
62Enhancing an Image: Color & Texture Color is an element of art. It is not as crucial as line for creating a recognizable image, but can convey great meaning.All colors except white and black are called hues. Black and white are neutrals. When black and white are mixed, gray results.When black is added to a hue, the hue grows darker, and it is said to have a lower value.Mixing white into a hue increases its value, making it lighter.
63All surfaces absorb some wavelengths of light and reflect others; our brains perceive the reflected wavelengths as color.The three primary colors, red, blue, and yellow, are so called because the receptors in our eyes are set up for them.We perceive other colors as mixes of red, blue, and yellow.
64Green (a mix of blue and yellow), orange (a mix of red and yellow), and violet or purple (a mix of blue and red) are the three secondary colors.Secondary colors combine with primary colors to form tertiary colors.The color wheel shows the full spectrum of primary, secondary, and tertiary colors; the points of the triangle are positioned on three of the six tertiary colors.
66Meaningful Color: Colors have great significance to people. For example, all around the world, green is associated with nature, red with danger, and blue with water.Colors also have different meanings in different cultures, which is very important to contextual analysis.In Western art, red, orange and yellow are considered warm colors, used to represent cheerful ideas, while green, blue, and purple are cool colors.Warm colors tend to jump out at the viewer, while cooler colors fade into the background.Western artists of the nineteenth century were aware of these properties of color, and used them purposefully to create contrast.
67Many works of art have a focal point, a place where the viewer’s eye naturally drifts. Look at Vincent van Gogh’s The Starry Night (1889).Your eyes should end up focused on the moon. This is partly due to color: the warmer color of the moon draws the eye, and the swirls of yellow on the blue background lead to it. Lines, real and implied, also draw the eye toward the moon.
68Color is perceived differently in different light Color is perceived differently in different light. The human eye evolved for natural sunlight; artificial light is a relatively new development. If you look at an object by daylight, you’ll see its local color, or natural hue.In non-natural light, we see an object’s optical color, the combination of the object’s actual color and the action of the light source.
69Consider how set designers use different colors to set the mood in different film and theater scenes.The most extreme effect results from the use of arbitrary color, as in Three Musicians.People’s skin comes in a marvelous range of shades, but blue isn’t one of them.Artists use arbitrary color for many reasons, but the usual intent is to subvert viewer expectations.
70TEXTURELike color, texture isn’t necessary to depict a recognizable subject.Outside of art, texture refers to how something feels.Within art, texture refers both to how something feels and to how it looks like it might feel.
71Sculptures have texture based on the materials used to create them. Stone has a texture, as do wood, bronze, or any other material an artist might use.Carvings made on these surfaces add additional texture.
72Two-dimensional art, such as a painting, can still have three dimensional texture. Artists can use thick brushstrokes or even literally stick things on their canvases to help create Texture.If you touched a painting created with these techniques, you’d feel the same texture you see.
73Texture can also be used to create an illusion of a third dimension in two-dimensional artworks. In Francisco de Zurbarán’s Still Life with Pottery Jars (1636), the metal objects appear shiny and smooth, as they would in real life.The pottery jars all have textures that look as if they would feel ridged if touched. Zurbarán achieved this by contrasting the reflective appearance of the ridges and The darkness of the shadows.
74Perspective: Adding Depth to an Image Line, shape, form, and space create a recognizable image.Color and texture make images more sophisticated and create more recognizable and realistic objects.Perspective, a technique artists use to create illusions of depth, distance, and proportion, adds even more complexity to two-dimensional art.
75An object seen close-up will appear larger than the same object in the distance. A car appears smaller as it drives off.If you hold your fingers in front of an eye, a faraway face will appear no larger than the space between your fingertips.Once an object is far enough, it vanishes to the naked eye. The point at which it disappears is its vanishing point.
76When drawing or painting objects both near and far, linear perspective is used to create an illusion of distance. An artist sketches a vanishing point, and then draws the lines in the artwork narrowing toward it.When a work has multiple vanishing points, as a painting of two roads might, the artist first places all of the vanishing points in relation to one another.
77When painting outdoor scenes, artists often make use of aerial perspective. Even on a clear day, the atmosphere contains water vapor and dust. These particles make distant objects appear fuzzy and fainter.To depict this phenomenon, an artist blurs and recolors distant objects—emulating the effects of looking at them through a long stretch of air.Thus, in Caspar David Friedrich’s Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog (1818), not only are the rocky crags in the distance smaller on the canvas than the nearer ones, they’re painted with less detail and lighter colors.
78Artists use other perspective techniques, including distance and proportion, to add depth. Overlapping objects create the illusion that one is in front of the other.An object at the bottom of an image appears nearer, while one at the top appears further away, even when both take up equal space.Larger, detailed objects appear closer, and smaller, fuzzier objects more distant.Most artists combine all these techniques, particularly when painting landscapes and other large-scale scenes.
79Let’s Review: a. context f. Intention b. art history g. art criticism c. anthropology h. sociologyd. aesthetics i. patronagee. formal qualities j. function_____ 1. writing on current art_____ 2. visual characteristics of a work of art such as line, color, form, and texture_____ 3. academic discipline that studies human behavior and culture_____ 4. the social, cultural and economic conditions in which a work of art is made_____ 5. academic discipline that studies society and its institutions_____ 6. term referring to an artist’s goal in making an artwork_____ 7. the purpose of a work of art_____ 8. philosophical discipline that asks the question, “What is beauty?”_____ 9. the purchase of art by wealthy collectors_____ 10. discipline that studies the meaning of art in its own context
80Formal Analysis Contextual Analysis 1. observes and describes visual qualities of the work2. does not take into account any particular viewer’s biases, limitations, or point of references3. could explain how Pope Julius II understood Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel ceiling4. used to compare and contrast artistic styles5. studies properties intrinsic to the work of art6. includes consideration of the original location of the work7. looks at the cultural, social, economic, and religious context surrounding the work of art8. examines financial structures of art production such as patronage9. how the style of a work of art is determined10. evaluates the reception of the work of art in its own time and in later eras
81True or False1. Art history has traditionally focused on objects defined as art in their own historical context.2. The fine arts include painting, sculpture, architecture, and graphic design.3. Every work of art has a definitive meaning.4. Objects with everyday functions, such as textiles, baskets, and pottery, were not included in the history of art until recently.5. Contemporary art historians are reinforcing the traditional distinction between fine art and craft.6. Items of mass culture, such as movie posters and advertisements, belong to the history of art.7. Industrial design is outside the realm of art history.8. Women’s studies has changed the way we look at the history of art.
82criticism. color. preparatory models. direct participation. cost criticism color preparatory models direct participation cost sculptures interviews exhibition letters sketches texture scale reproductions commissions ritual1. Slides and photographs of paintings do not capture their unique ______ or ______.2. Art __________from the time period reveals how contemporary viewers interpreted works of art.3. Reproductions of ______fail to convey their ________in relation to the human body.4. Archival documents such as ____ or contracts pertaining to _______ provide insight into the personal and artistic life of the artist.
83criticism. color. preparatory models. direct participation. cost criticism color preparatory models direct participation cost sculptures interviews exhibition letters sketches texture scale reproductions commissions ritual5. Art historians prefer _______ observation of an artwork compared to looking at ______.6. ______________with artists are a direct testimony of the artist’s intentions and goals.7. Art historians learn about an artist’s process by looking at ____________and __________.8. The __________history of a work of art tells historians how it has been received by viewers throughout time.9. Observer __________is a method used by cultural anthropologists who study the _______ functions of art.