* is a cluster of specific instructional strategies that involve students working collaboratively to reach common goals;
* is characterized by a set of basic elements: * positive interdependence * individual accountability * equal opportunity for success * social/collaborative skills * group processing * face-to-face promotive interaction;
* puts students in both learning and teaching roles; * aims to achieve two major goals * attain content-related instructional objectives (Task Work); * develop students social and collaborative skills (Team Work); * is NOT equivalent to “group work”.
* Define, demonstrate, model, and explain social skills. * Model cooperative learning skills yourself * Emphasize expected group behaviors daily * Discuss negative effects of put-downs on classroom contribution. Enforce the rule of “No put- downs allowed” with the compliment rule that “if a student gives a put-down, she immediately owes the other person two compliments”.
* Have students regularly tell their teammates * “I am glad you are here”, “I am glad you were here”, “thanks for helping”. * Have students give each other positive feedback each time they work as a group * “It helped when you", “Three ways we did well were...” * “One way each member contributed was...”
* When group members have problems, help them perceive them as interesting problem solving situations. Work them through the steps: * define the problem in specific terms, * brainstorm possible solutions, * try each one until the problem is solved.
DEDUCTIVE Definition to Examples INDUCTIVE Examples to Definition Present abstraction (Define the concept) Present examples and non- examples Clarify abstraction. (Elicit paraphrased definition, present or elicit definition of terms, and emphasize critical features of concept. Identify concept's critical features (Direct students to identify features common to all examples or identify features shared by examples and verbalize differences observed between examples and non-examples. List and organize critical features on board or transparency. Cue students if necessary by asking questions that direct attention to any overlooked critical feature
DEDUCTIVE Definition to Examples INDUCTIVE Examples to Definition Present examples and non- examples (provide examples that depict concept's critical features and explicitly direct attention to how common features are evident in those illustrations. Provide non- examples that lack one or more of the concept's critical features and explain how they differ from examples. Present a strategy for distinguishing between examples and non-examples Elicit abstraction (request definition of concept and clarify terms) Reinforce link to prior learning Relate concept to prior knowledge (link to superordinate concept and contrast with coordinate concepts)