Presentation on theme: "CSCI 305 – Fall 2013 The Entity-Relationship Model Based on Slides by Prof. Brian King."— Presentation transcript:
CSCI 305 – Fall 2013 The Entity-Relationship Model Based on Slides by Prof. Brian King
Why model? HACKER mentality BAD! THINK before CODING GOOD! Modeling in any software development is an important discipline – Forces you to think abstractly about your program – Most modeling approaches involve graphical views that allow you to discuss with other teammates, other non-CS folks – Models are fluid, dynamic, easy to change Released software is NOT! Database modeling – Makes it easy to extract database schema that makes sense – Makes it easy to understand queries to be made – Learning to model will provide a formal process to take you from ideas to a database schema
First, how do we get ideas about a database to an ER design? – Our first topic Convert an ER diagram to a full relational schema – Our next topic
Entity Relationship Model The E-R Model – A very common database modeling method – An abstract and conceptual representation of data Provides mechanism to sketch database schema designs – Depict structure of data – Constraints can be depicted, operation cannot Use during analysis and design of a database-centric system – For now, take a step back and forget about relations and tables Yields a graphical view of model called Entity-Relationship Diagram – ER Diagram – ERD
ER Diagrams Entity: – An abstract object, or "thing“, similar to OOP concept of object Entity Set: – A collection of similar entities Attributes: – Properties of the entities in that set – Simple values (e.g, integers, characters, dates, strings) ERD: – Entity set = rectangle – Attribute = oval Has a line to the rectangle representing its entity set
Examples Entity Set: Employee – Every employee entity in the set has three attributes Employee SSN name hireDate
Example Entity set Beers has two attributes, name and manf Each Beers entity has values for these two attributes – (Railbender,Erie Brewing) Beers name manf
Instance of an Entity Set An instance of an entity set stores a specific set of entities – Each entity is a tuple containing specific values for each attribute – This is conceptual only (database not created yet!) nameSSNhireDate Joe Worker1234567892010-04-20 Bob Slacker9876543212009-03-19 Jane Busybee2482183412009-08-23 Donna Sleeper5792475292010-09-01
Relationships A relationship connects two or more entity sets In ERD, we use a diamond, with lines to each of the entity sets involved
Example: Relationships Drinkers addrname Beers manfname Bars name license addr Note: license = beer, full, none Sells Bars sell some beers. Likes Drinkers like some beers. Frequents Drinkers frequent some bars.
Example Students Take Courses Professors Teach Courses Professors Advise Students
Relationship Set An entity has a "value" – The value of its attributes An entity set has a "value" – The set of entities that belong to it – Example: The set of all bars The set of all beers – An instance of the entity set is a specific set of values A relationship has a "value" – Called a relationship set – A set of entities with values for each related entity
Example: Relationship Set Relationship Sells – We might have a relationship set like: BarBeer Lewisburg HotelBud Lewisburg HotelRailbender The ChameleonBud The ChameleonHeineken
Multiplicities in relationships Multiplicities specify a constraint between two entities – Tell us something about how members are related Our multiplicity constraints: – Many-many – Many-one – One-one
Many-One Relationships R is a many-one relationship between E and F if each entity in E can be connected to at most one entity in F by R Example: – Favorite, from Drinkers to Beers – A drinker can have at most one favorite beer – A beer can be the favorite of any number of drinkers, including none
One-One Relationships R is a one-one relationship between E and F if R is many-one between E and F and many-one between F and E Example: – Relationship BestSeller between entity sets Manfs and Beers – A beer cannot be made by more than one manufacturer, and no manufacturer can have more than one best-seller (assuming no ties)
Many-Many Relationships R is a many-many relationship between E and F if R is neither one-one or many-one Example: – A relationship Sells between beers and bars a bar sells many beers a beer is sold by many bars
Representing "Multiplicity" many-one relationship – arrow entering the "one" side one-one relationship – arrow entering both sides many-many relationship – no arrows
Multiway Relationships Sometimes, we need a relationship that connects more than two entity sets – Not often. Occasionally three entity sets are related, very rarely more Suppose that drinkers will only drink certain beers at certain bars – Our three binary relationships Likes, Sells, and Frequents do not allow us to make this distinction – But a 3-way relationship would
Example: Multiway Relationship Bars Beers Drinkers name addr manf name addr license Preferences
Relationships as roles No restriction on quantity of relationships between entity sets When you have more than one distinct relationship path between entity sets, useful to consider the "roles" between entity sets – The same entity sets can have different roles – Called Parallel Relationships Student Course EnrolledIn TA
Relationships as roles Sometimes a single entity set will appear more than once in a relationship – Label the lines with the role of the entity for clarity Example: – A course can have other courses as a prerequisite Course Prereq Requirement Requires RequirerRequirement CSCI 204CSCI 203
Attributes on Relationships Sometimes it is convenient to attach an attribute to a relationship – The value of the attribute depends on the value of the related entities in the relationship set Bar Sells Beer name manf name address price
Multiway to Binary Some data models often limit relationships to be binary ER does not restrict this; yet it is good to know how to convert to binary – Solution: Create connecting entity sets whose entities are the tuples in the relationship set Example: Bar Sales Beer Person Date
Multiway to Binary Bar Person -Of Person -Of Beer Person Beer- Of Sale Bar-Of Date
Better… rethink your strategy Bar Purchases Beer Person Visits Sells Date
Subclasses Subclass – A special case of an entity set – F is a subclass of E if each entity in F is an entity of E – F must have at least one attribute or participate in at least one relationship that E does not – (OOP idea of a subclass) Example: – Ales are a kind of beer – Comedy is a kind of movie type – Dogs are a kind of Animal
Subclass in an ERD In ERD, use isa relationship with a triangle Isa triangles indicate the subclass relationship between entities – Points to the superclass Example Beers Ales isa name manf color
E/R vs. OO subclasses IN OO, objects are in one class only – Subclasses inherit from superclasses E/R entities have representatives in all subclasses to which they belong – Rule: if entity e is represented in a subclass, then e is represented in the superclass (and recursively up the tree) Example (from book): – Movie: Who Framed Roger Rabbit Movie isa Cartoon Movie isa Murder-Mystery Will have attributes for all the above
Section 4.2 Section 4.2 – What makes a good design for an ER model? – READ IT – Summary: KISS – Avoid redundancy, unnecessary entities and relationships Stick to the spec Choose the right design elements – Know when to use an attribute vs. an entity
Key – Consistent with what we have learned – A key is a set of attributes for one entity set s.t. no two entities in this set agree on all attributes in the key Every entity set must have a key In your ERD: – Underline the key attributes(s) – In an isa hierarchy, only the root entity set has a key (and serves as key for all subclasses)
Example: Multi-attribute Key Courses dept number hours room
Referential Integrity Referential integrity – says a value in one context must appear in another. – In terms of cardinality, it's a "one-and-only-one" constraint IN E/R diagram, enforced with a "rounded" arrow. – Rounded arrow end indicates one and only one entity must exist in relationship Example We'll introduce "crow's foot notation" shortly, which provides a common means for representing cardinality
Degree Constraints Attach a bounding number to an edge connecting an entity to limit the number of entities in a relationship
Weak Entity Sets With a specified relationship, sometimes the key for an entity is not enough to enforce uniqueness Example: Consider a Plays-On relationship between Players and Team – Players have two attributes: name and number; Team has one: name – A name is a possible key for a player but there might be two players out there with the same name – A number for a player is not a key Different teams can use the same player numbers – However, we could use number with the team name We say that Players is a weak entity set
Weak Entity Set Entities of a weak entity set can not be determined alone Entity set E is said to be weak if, in order to identify entities of E uniquely, we need to: – follow one or more many-one relationships from E – include the key of those related entities These many-one relationships are called supporting relationships for E – The corresponding entity sets reached from E are supporting entity sets.
IN E/R Diagrams Players Teams name number name Plays-On Rounded arrow – because each player needs a team (this assists with the key) Double rectangle for the weak entity set Double diamond for supporting many-one relationship
Weak Entity Set Rules Requirement for Weak Entity Sets: – Its key consists of zero or more of its own attributes AND keys from supporting entities sets Formally stated requirements for Supporting Relationship R between weak set E and Supporting Set F – R must be a binary, many-one from E to F – R must have referential integrity from E to F each E must have exactly one F (i.e, must have one_and_only_one end (i.e. rounded arrow) – The attributes that F supplies for E must be the key attributes of F – If F is weak, then there must exist another supporting set G to which F is connected by a supporting relationship
Don't Overuse Weak Entity Sets! Beginners often doubt that anything could be a key by itself – Often end up with many weak entity sets In reality, we usually create unique identifiers for entity sets – SSN – Driver's license number – Student ID Weak entity sets are used when there is no "global authority" capable of creating unique IDs – Example: It is unlikely to ever have a global mechanism for assigning unique player numbers across all teams in the world!
Entity Sets Vs. Attributes An entity set should satisfy at least one of the following conditions: – It is more than the name of something; it has at least one non-key attribute – It is the "many" in a many-one or many-many relationship. An attribute should not be introduced if it is redundant – You should not have to change the same information in two or more places! – We will deal with this when we explore FDs next chapter
Example: GOOD Beers Manf name BrewedBy addr Manfs deserves to be an entity because of the non-key attribute addr Beers deserves to be an entity set because it is the "many" of the many-one relationship.
Example: BAD Beers Manf name BrewedBy addr manf Manufacturer of the beer is stated twice: as an attribute AND a related entity!
Example: BAD Beers name addr manf Manufacturer address will be stored repeatedly
Example: BAD Beers Manf name BrewedBy Since the manufacturer is nothing but a name, and is not at the "many" end, it should not be an entity set.
Example: OK Beers name manf This may be OK if we only care about the name of the manufacturer for each entity.
Rules Entity set relation – Attributes attributes of the relation Relationships relations whose attributes are only: – Keys of connected entity sets – Attributes of relationship itself What about weak entity sets? isa relationships?
54 Entity Set Relation Relation: Beers(name, manf) Beers name manf
Relationship -> Relation Drinkers Beers Likes Likes(drinker, beer) Favorite Favorite(drinker, beer) Married husband wife Married(husband, wife) name addr name manf Buddies 1 2 Buddies(name1, name2)
Combining Relationships You can combine the following into one relation: – The relation for an entity-set E – The relations for many-one relationships for which E is the "many" Example from previous diagram: – Drinkers(name, addr) An entity – Favorite(drinker, beer) A relation of which drinkers is the "many" – Combine to make Drinker(name, addr, favBeer)
Risk with Many-Many Relationships Combining Drinkers with Likes would be a mistake. It leads to redundancy, as: name addr beer Sally 123 Maple Bud Sally 123 Maple Miller Redundancy
Handling Weak Entity Sets A relation for a weak entity set must include attributes for its complete key (including keys in supporting entity sets), as well as its own nonkey attributes A supporting relationship is redundant and yields NO relation, unless it has its own attributes.
Example: Weak Entity Set -> Relation Logins Hosts At name Hosts(hostName, location) Logins(loginName, hostName, loginTime) At(loginName, hostName, hostName2) Must be the same time At becomes part of Logins location
Subclasses: Three approaches 1.Object-Oriented – One relation per subset of subclasses, with all relevant attributes; need to enumerate all subclasses and assign entities accordingly. 2.Use nulls – One relation total; entities have NULL in attributes that don't belong to them 3.E/R style – One relation for each subclass Key attributes Attributes of that subclass
Example: Subclass -> Relations Beers Ales isa name manf color
Object-Oriented namemanf BudAnheuser-Busch Beers name manfcolor Summerbrew Pete’sdark Ales Good for queries like “find the color of ales made by Pete’s.”
63 Using Nulls namemanf color Bud Anheuser-Busch NULL Summerbrew Pete’s dark Beers Saves space unless there are lots of attributes that are usually NULL.
E/R Style 64 namemanf Bud Anheuser-Busch Summerbrew Pete’s Beers name color Summerbrew dark Ales Good for queries like “find all beers (including ales) made by Pete’s.”