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Welcome! Worldviews Ellen Waddell Instructor. AGENDA Worldviews The deep structure of culture vs. religion –The deep structure of culture deals with issues.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome! Worldviews Ellen Waddell Instructor. AGENDA Worldviews The deep structure of culture vs. religion –The deep structure of culture deals with issues."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome! Worldviews Ellen Waddell Instructor

2 AGENDA Worldviews The deep structure of culture vs. religion –The deep structure of culture deals with issues that matter most to people Personal Communication Worldview Survey

3 “I never talk about politics or religion” –Why do we use this philosophy? –”For some unexplainable reason, the responsibility of generating and preserving the elements of world view has rested with either religious institutions (for example, the Catholic church) or spiritual leaders (for example, Buddha).” (Samovar and Porter)

4 Epistemology, Ontology & Semantics Epistemology: The academic field that studies how you know what you know Ontology: The academic field that studies what you do with what you know Semantics- The academic field that studies the meanings attributed to verbal and nonverbal communication. All academic research is dependent upon the worldview of the researcher and of the field of study

5 Worldviews & Academia –“academic research is also cultural behavior, because research traditions require particular worldviews about the nature of reality and knowledge and particular beliefs about how research should be conducted.” (Martin and Nakayama) How are the power bases reflected in the worldview issue?

6 Understanding Worldviews  Worldview – the very foundation of a belief system for an individual/group  Value orientations: culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty Serve as guidelines for living Values are grounded in beliefs about the way the world should be rather than assumptions about the way the world is I believe people should be honest, hardworking, friendly, etc.

7 Understand Beliefs Beliefs – confidence in the truth of something Measured on a probable – improbable scale Belief system – everything you agree is true Disbelief system – all things you think are not true Understand not only cultural attitudes, but also beliefs The more central a belief, the harder members will work to defend it, and less willing they will be to change it

8 Understanding Worldviews What is the foundation, or the “platform” for the:  Republican Party  Democratic Party

9 Understanding Worldviews  Worldview  Overarching philosophy, outlook, conception of the world  Used in constructing, populating, and anticipating social worlds  Automatic, unconscious  the very foundation of a belief system for an individual/group  originates via cultural communication  transmitted in a variety of ways

10 Understanding Worldviews  Worldview  Influences social, economic, political life  Provides needed perception of events for a culture  Functions to make sense of life experiences that might otherwise be seen as chaotic, random, meaningless  Collective wisdom for sanctioned actions  Survival  Adaptation

11 Understanding Worldviews  Worldview – the very foundation of a belief system for an individual/group  Composed of core beliefs  Core beliefs are transmitted to others through our value orientations  Values are grounded in beliefs about the way the world should be rather than assumptions about the way the world is:  “I believe people should be honest, hardworking, friendly, etc.”  Values made visible through our behavior verbally and nonverbally

12 Definitions Matter

13 Understand Your Listeners’ Worldview Defining values=priorities and importance –Generation interviews Faith & Religious Beliefs Family Social status Career success Wealth/Financial independence

14 Understand Your Listeners’ Worldview How you define terms indicates worldview –Stress –Old/Young –Good manners –Are you carbaphobic? What does the use of the term “phobic” add to the meaning of the word? Can the use of the term influence outcomes, or attitudes? How?

15 Understand Your Listeners’ Worldview How you define terms legallyHow you define terms legally dictates the outcome –Life When does life begin –Conception –Birth –Death Right to Die or Suicide/Murder

16 Understanding Worldviews  Collectivist or Individualistic? I believe students should stand up and bow when the teacher comes into the room to show respect I believe teachers are just like other people and should not be shown unusual deference for the position they hold

17 Personal Communication Worldview Survey Results Worldview and culture impact communication The internalization of opinions concerning worldview and cultural connection  High communication control/motives  Contentious  Dramatic in leave taking  Dominant  Less relaxed when communicating  Low communication control/motives  Helplessness  Powerlessness  Fatalism

18 Personal Communication Worldview Survey Results #1 Russian/Ukrainian #2 American #3 Japanese  60% and less low control  60-80% moderate control  80%+ high control  High communication control/motives  Contentious  Dramatic in leave taking  Dominant  Less relaxed when communicating  Low communication control/motives  Helplessness  Powerlessness  Fatalism

19 Group Discussion Acceptance vs. Tolerance –What is the difference? –Does it matter? Topical –Religion Fundamentalist –Political Far left/Far right Insurgent vs. freedom fighter

20 9/11: Group Discussion Compare and contrast worldviews –Consider the attacks on 9/11 American viewpoint Arab/Middle East viewpoint The United Nations viewpoint –Is there a link to worldviews and the reason the attacks occurred in the first place? –Do cultural differences play a role? –Is it a religious issue? If yes, which religion (s) are responsible and why? –Are there any other factors that become evident about this event and the underlying reasons for the attacks? Please be prepared to report to class as a group Refer to lecture and text for specific answers This activity should take the remainder of our session

21 End of presentation

22 Welcome! The Deep Structure of Religion Ellen Waddell Instructor

23 AGENDA Review Worldviews The deep structure of culture vs. religion –The deep structure of culture deals with issues that matter most to people

24 Understanding Worldviews  Worldview – the very foundation of a belief system for an individual/group  Core beliefs=values=behavior  Value orientations What is the worldview of  Theists  Atheists

25 Understand Beliefs Beliefs – confidence in the truth of something Measured on a probable – improbable scale Belief system – everything you agree is true Disbelief system – all things you think are not true Understand not only cultural attitudes, but also beliefs The more central a belief, the harder members will work to defend it, and less willing they will be to change it

26 Cultural Application All cultures possess, “a dominant organized religion within which salient beliefs and activities (rites, rituals, taboos, and ceremonies) can be given meaning and literacy” (Parkes, Laungani, and Young) Impacts entire fabric of culture –Protestant work ethic –Code of ethics

27 The Good/Evil Continuum What did you learn about yourself concerning good and evil? What did you learn about religious beliefs and the inclusion of good and evil?

28 The Good/Evil Continuum  Are humans inherent good? (Hinduism) ﭖMust be trustworthy ﭖWill choose to do good ﭖSuffering comes from ignorance  Are humans inherently evil? (Christian)  Original sin  Laws needed to control natural tendencies  In need of redemption Bank: Chained down pens/guard: What does this say?

29 Golden Rule Articulations Buddhism: –Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful Christianity: –All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them Confucianism: –Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you. Hinduism: –This is the sum of duty: do naught unto others which would cause you pain if done to you Islam: –No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself Judaism: –What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man. That is the law: all the rest is commentary Native American: –Respect for all life is the foundation

30 Religion Is religion myth based? fact based? Review: –Epistemology/Ontology/Semantics –All academic research is dependent upon the worldview of the researcher and of the field of study

31 Ethical Reasoning vs. Reasoning Fallacies  Ethical speakers do not use reasoning fallacies Argumentum ad Hominem:Argumentum ad Hominem: old fashion name calling, or an attack on the person and not the issue in question Red Herring:Red Herring: using an irrelevant issue or distraction to divert the focus to another issue (think of a BAD smell) False Division/Dichotomy:False Division/Dichotomy: Polarization of options, when in reality there exists many options of choice. Post Hoc (False Cause):Post Hoc (False Cause): Identification of an issue as the cause of another problem, when there is not relationship Argumentum ad PopulumArgumentum ad Populum (bandwagon): “But, everyone is doing it!” An appeal to popular opinion Argumentum ad Verecudiam:Argumentum ad Verecudiam: Appeal to authority, or the testimony of someone who is not a true expert

32 Religion Myth? Fact? –Jewish history –WWII

33 Understand Beliefs “It is clear that religion and culture are inextricably intertwined” (Lamb) “Religion and civilization seem to have gone hand in hand in the evolution of human society to the extent that one could conclude that they are co- equal and co-terminus” (Guruge)

34 The Importance of Religion Religion works to generate and preserve elements of world views “A man devoid of religion is like a horse without a bridle” Latin proverb

35 The Importance of Religion Psychological Social Reduce anxiety of the unknown –Make it more understandable –Comfort in time of crises –Right/wrong clear –Rituals

36 Group Discussion: Religious Identity Faith vs. Cultural Identity –Are they the same thing? –Is there a difference? “I’m Jewish” –Does this mean the person practices the Jewish religion? relates to a Jewish ethnic identity? is racially of Jewish descent? Please be prepared to report to class as a group Refer to lecture and text for specific answers This activity should take the remainder of our session

37 End of presentation

38 Welcome! The Deep Structure of Religion Ellen Waddell Instructor

39 AGENDA Review –Worldviews –The deep structure of culture vs. religion Religion and culture in action –Video examples And a little fun…

40 Importance of Religion Whether it is the teachings of the Bible, Vedas, Koran, Torah, or I Ching, people have always felt a need to seek outside themselves the values by which they live their lives and guidance on how to view and explain the world –(Samovar and Porter)

41 Traditions 1 billion + followers: –Judaism –Islam –Christianity –Hinduism –Buddhism –Confucianism

42 Golden Rule Articulations Buddhism: –Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful Christianity: –All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them Confucianism: –Do not do unto others what you would not have them do unto you. Hinduism: –This is the sum of duty: do naught unto others which would cause you pain if done to you Islam: –No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself Judaism: –What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man. That is the law: all the rest is commentary Native American: –Respect for all life is the foundation

43 Similarities Sacred scriptures Authority –Buddha –Jesus –Mohammad Traditional rituals –Rites of passage (baptism/bar mitzvahs) –Spatial: travel to Mecca –Time: Holidays (Christmas/Easter) –Indirect: Japanese tea ceremony (specific behavior and values displayed)

44 Similarities Speculation –The mysteries of life explained Ethics –The Golden Rule Security/Purpose –Shared symbols, values, norms –Fulfills need to belong (Maslow) Sacred time/organized worship –For worship –Recognition of dates/life cycles/ events Cycle of the moon Date of historical event Traditions

45 Differences Behavior –Can be related to dominant vs. micro cultural status of group –Individualistic vs. collectivist –Low distance/high distance

46 African American Culture Importance of the church to culture –Historical meaning –Religious identity –Political Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Church burnings Cross on lawns/KKK

47 Glory How did the video depict –the two different cultures in the face of death? –Religion –power bases –Worldview

48 Moby Dick How did the video depict –Culture –Religion –Worldview

49 The Blues Brothers How did the video depict –Culture –Religion –Worldview –Realistic? –Stereotypical? They'll never get caught. They're on a mission from God.

50 Group Discussion: Differences Faith vs. Cultural Identity –Are they the same thing? –Is there a difference? “I’m Christian” “I’m Muslim” “I’m Buddhist” –Does this mean the person practices the religion? relates to an ethnic identity? is racially of a recognizable group descent? Please be prepared to report to class as a group Refer to lecture and text for specific answers This activity should take the remainder of our session

51 End of presentation


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