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Reasoning & Problem Solving Lecture 6 Judging Credibility By David Kelsey.

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Presentation on theme: "Reasoning & Problem Solving Lecture 6 Judging Credibility By David Kelsey."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reasoning & Problem Solving Lecture 6 Judging Credibility By David Kelsey

2 Credibility Credible: –to be believable. –Sources and Claims –Credibility from reasons

3 The credibility of claims Claims have credibility –The credibility of a claim can come in degrees. Examples:

4 Inherent Credibility It is reasonable to be suspicious if a claim lacks credibility inherently or comes from a source that lacks credibility. –A claim lacks inherent credibility to the extent that it conflicts with what we have observed or our background information or with other credible claims. –The Mail example:

5 Limitations to observations Limitations to observations: –Don’t be so quick to reject claims that conflict with observation Unreliable observations: –Environmental conditions: –Distracted: –Impaired: –Instruments: –Biases –Memory

6 Background information A claim also lacks inherent credibility if it conflicts with one’s background information. –Background Information: that immense body of justified beliefs that consists of facts we learn from our own observations and facts we learn from others. –What do you do when a claim conflicts with your background info? –Example Palm trees

7 The Credibility of sources Source: –a person from whom one has obtained some information. –Example Bird expert –Credibility in Degrees –Example The habitual liar

8 Irrelevant Considerations Irrelevant Considerations: Examples: –Physical characteristics –Certain body gestures and postures –Gender, age, ethnicity, accent and mannerisms. –Clothing

9 Credible sources A source can lack credibility for any one of 4 reasons: 1. knowledge 2. truthfulness 3. accuracy 4. objectivity

10 Biases Biases: –To have a bias toward a person, place or thing is to favor that person, place or thing over others. Biases because of love or jealousy… –Sharpening and Leveling: a report or story occurs when one exaggerates what she thinks is the main point and drops out or de-emphasizes details that seem peripheral.

11 What matters when judging credibility? There are several factors that matter when judging a source’s credibility: –Education –Experience –Accomplishments –Reputation

12 When experts disagree When experts disagree: –We must suspend judgment about which expert to endorse. An expert: –Always expert in a particular field. It is someone who is highly knowledgeable in that field. –When might we not need to suspend judgment?

13 The Media Editing: –Radio and television –Newspapers –The Internet –News magazines What sources are credible?

14 Talk radio Talk radio: –Credibility is questionable because: News often based on rumor or hearsay Selective presentation of the facts

15 The news media: private businesses News media in this country are private businesses. –No govt. control –The Threat of cancelled advertising

16 The internet The internet: –Use caution 2 kinds of sites: –1) Commercial and Institutional sources: –2) Individual and group sites:

17 Advertising Advertisements and Skepticism: –Advertising firms Just ask: –Does this ad give us a good reason to buy this product?

18 Kinds of Advertisements There are two kinds of ads: 1) Ads that offer reasons for buying a product. –Kleenex example 2) Ads that don’t offer a reason for buying their product –Ads that bring pleasurable feelings –Ads that depict the product being used by people we admire –Ads that depict situations in which we would like to find ourselves.

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