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Scanner Course #4 Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2012, O-2013, O-2003 Controlled and Special Use Airspace Plot a Route on a Sectional Chart.

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Presentation on theme: "Scanner Course #4 Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2012, O-2013, O-2003 Controlled and Special Use Airspace Plot a Route on a Sectional Chart."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Scanner Course #4 Minnesota Wing Aircrew Training: Tasks P-2012, O-2013, O-2003 Controlled and Special Use Airspace Plot a Route on a Sectional Chart Grid Sectional Charts

3 Scanner Course #4 Controlled and Special Use Airspace

4 Scanner Course #4 Controlled and Special-Use Airspace Military Operating Area (MOA) (Magenta hatched outline) – Military may be conducting high-speed operations – VFR aircraft are not prohibited Military Training Routes (Gray lines) – Instrument routes (IR) Flown above 1500’ IFR – Visual routes (VR) Flown at or below 1500’ VFR – Difficult to see (grey) military aircraft not restricted to < 250 KTAS below 10,000’ as civilian aircraft, may be much faster – Depiction is misleading: Widths vary- might be be 4 miles either side or might 9 miles either side of Centerline Restricted Areas (Blue hatched outline, R- XXXX) – Military may be conducting air-to-ground bombing or gunnery practice – No other aircraft are allowed

5 Scanner Course #4 Controlled and Special-Use Airspace Airports – Shape and symbols depict size and facilities – Color depicts controlled or not Blue indicates Control tower (at least some times) Magenta indicates uncontrolled

6 Scanner Course #4 Controlled and Special-Use Airspace Prohibited Areas (Blue hatched outline, P-XXX) – No aircraft are allowed for national security or other reasons – Example is the White House

7 Scanner Course #4

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10 Controlled and Special-Use Airspace Great flash cards available on AOPA website

11 Scanner Course #4 Plot a Route on a Sectional Chart

12 Scanner Course #4 An example We want to fly from Honker Flats Airport to Norris Airport in Minnesota… So we: – Locate departure and destination on the chart – Lay a plotter along the route with grommet on Latitude or Longitude line – Read the course – Read the distance – Note magnetic variation

13 Scanner Course #4 Plotting a course True course: 084 degrees Distance: 47 NM Magnetic variation: 4 degrees East

14 Scanner Course #4 Dead reckoning: The calculation, part one True course minus East magnetic variance or plus West magnetic variance equals magnetic course

15 Scanner Course #4

16 Dead reckoning: The calculation, part 2 Magnetic course minus left wind correction or plus right wind correction Equals magnetic heading Distance divided by ground speed Equals estimated time enroute (ETE)

17 Scanner Course #4 Additional information needed to compute wind correction angle and ground speed True Airspeed 115 Kts – Determined from tables in the aircraft’s POH (pilot operating handbook) – Depends on altitude and engine power setting Wind 300 at 24 Kts – Determined from winds aloft forecast

18 Scanner Course #4 Wind Recap Using a flight computer we can find that: – The wind is from 300, behind us to our left – We will have a tail wind (133 Kts ground speed given 115 Kts air speed) – We will need to steer left (7 degrees)

19 Scanner Course #4 Wind 300 Wind correction 7 degrees left Ground speed 133 Kts

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21 Dead reckoning: The calculation, part 3 Magnetic heading plus or minus magnetic deviation Equals compass heading

22 Scanner Course #4 Dead reckoning: magnetic deviation Magnetic deviation is determined by looking at the ‘compass card’ inside the aircraft – Magnetic deviation is the effect of compass error due to metal and magnetic fields inside the aircraft For our example, we’ll say that the deviation is zero, so magnetic heading and compass heading are the same

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24 Dead Reckoning: recap Primary navigation instruments are compass (or directional gyro) and clock Predictive, mathematical, in nature Based, in part, on forecast information Primary limitation: – Accuracy of forecast

25 Scanner Course #4 Checkpoints (Pilotage) Tick marks at 2, 4, 5, or 10 NM or other spacing can be used to help keep track of position – At 120 kts, 4 NM tick marks represent 2 minutes of flight Prominent features easily seen from the air (cites, towns, lakes, and rivers) make the best checkpoints Can be circled before the flight for easy reference Takes practice – Seasons make a difference, especially winter – Be careful using lakes – be sure of the shape and placement next to other features – Difficult in sparse areas – Difficult at night

26 Scanner Course #4 Pilotage tricks Tricks: – Look for trees to find creeks, rivers, and towns

27 Scanner Course #4 What Checkpoints could be used on this route?

28 Scanner Course #4 CAP Grid System

29 Scanner Course #4 CAP Grid System Overlays standard sectional maps Subdivides the map into distinct working areas Each grid is 1/4° of latitude by 1/4° of longitude (15 minutes square) and is assigned a number A grid is identified by a Sectional Chart name plus a number – Example: Twin Cities Grid 444 (St. Cloud Area) Grids are further divided into sub-grids labeled A, B, C, and D Each sectional has a standard for assigning grid numbers — for areas of overlap the grid number of the most westerly chart is used

30 Scanner Course #4 Sectional Grid System 94 00’ W o 93 30’ W o 45 30’ N o 46 00’ N o 30’ x 30’ Aeronautical Chart Divison

31 Scanner Course #4 Sectional Grid System 93 45’ o 94 00’ W o 93 30’ W o 45 30’ N o 46 00’ N o 45 45’ o 15’ x 15’

32 Scanner Course #4 CAP Grid System A grid can be divided into quarter grids 7 ½ Minutes square in size Quarter-grids are labeled A, B, C, and D – Example: Twin Cities Grid 159A (The Northwest quarter of TC Grid 159) Letters are used to define sub-grids W ’ W W N 36 15’ N AB C B C D 159 A ’ N W W A B C D 159 ADB

33 Scanner Course #4 Standardized Latitude/Longitude Grid System This system does not require special numbering Lat-long of lower right corner defines the grid Letters are used to define sub-grids W W N N AB C B C D 36/102 AA N W W A B C D 36/102 ADB

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36 Scanner Course #4 Making Grid Charts You can use a new sectional — normally not updated unless it gets worn out Use a hi-lighter (not pink) to mark grid boundaries on the chart using a long ruler Mark grid identification in black ink for easy visibility You should always keep a current sectional with you even if you have a sectional which is marked with grids


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