Presentation on theme: "Modelling and Analyzing Multimodal Dyadic Interactions Using Social Networks Sergio Escalera, Petia Radeva, Jordi Vitrià, Xavier Barò and Bogdan Raducanu."— Presentation transcript:
Modelling and Analyzing Multimodal Dyadic Interactions Using Social Networks Sergio Escalera, Petia Radeva, Jordi Vitrià, Xavier Barò and Bogdan Raducanu
Outline 1.Introduction 2.Audio – Visual cues extraction and fusion 3.Social Network extraction and analysis 4.Experimental Results 5.Conclusions and future work
1.Introduction -Social interactions play a very important role in people’s daily lives. -Present trend: analysis of human behavior based on electronic communications: SMS, e-mails, chat -New trend: analysis of human behavior based on nonverbal communication: social signals -Quantification of social signals represents a powerful cue to characterize human behavior: facial expression, hand and body gestures, focus of attention, voice prosody, etc.
Social Network Analysis (SNA) has been developed as a tool to model social interactions in terms of a graph- based structure: - ‘Nodes’ represent the ‘actors’: persons, communities, institutions, etc. - ‘Links’ represent a specific type of interdepency: friendship, familiarity, business transactions, etc. A common way to characterize the information ‘encoded’ in a SNA is to use several centrality measures.
Our contribution: -In this work, we propose an integrated framework for extraction and analysis of a SNA from multimodal (A/V) dyadic interactions* -The advantage is represented by the fact that it is based on a totally non-intrunsive technology -First: we perform speech segmentation through an audio/visual fusion scheme - In the audio domain, speech is detected through clusterization of audio features - In the visual domain, speech is detected through differential-based feature extraction from the segmented mouth region - The fusion scheme is based on stacked sequential learning *We used a set of videos belonging to the New York Times’ Blogging heads opinion blog. The videos depict two persons talking on different subject in front of a webcam
Block-diagram representation of our integrated framework - Second: To quantify the dyadic interaction, we used the ‘Influence Model’, whose states encode previously integrated audio-visual data - Third: The Social Network is extracted based on the estimated influences* and its properties are characterized based on several centrality measures. * The use of term ‘influence’ is inspired by the previous work of Choudhury: T. Choudhury, 2003. “Sensing and Modelling Human Networks”, Ph.D. Thesis, MIT Media Lab
2. Audio – Visual cues extraction and fusion Audio cue –Description 12 first MFCC coefficients Signal energy Temporal cepstral derivatives (Δ and Δ 2 )
Audio cue –Diarization process Segmentation –Coarse segmentation according Generalized Likelihood ratio between consecutive windows Clustering –Agglomerative hierarchical clustering with a BIC stopping scheme Segments boundaries are adjusted at the end
Visual cue –Description: Face segmentation based on Viola-Jones detector Mouth region segmentation Vector of HOG descriptors for for the mouth region
Visual cue –Classification: Non-Speech class modelling One-class Dynamic Time warping based on the following dynamic programming equation
Fusion scheme –Stacked sequential learning (suitable for problems characterized by long runs of identical labels) Fusion of audio-visual modalities Determining temporal relations of both feature sets for learning a two-stage classifier (based on Ada- Boost)
3. Social Network extraction and analysis -Influence Model (IM), was a tool introduced for quantification of interacting processes using a coupled Hidden Markov Model (HMM) -In the case of social interaction, the states of IM encode automatically extracted audio-visual features Influence Model Architecture parameters represent the ‘influences’
- The construction of the Social Network is based on ‘influences’ values -A directed link between two nodes A and B (designated by A → B) implies that ‘A has influence over B’ -The SNA is based on several centrality measures: - degree centrality (indegree and outdegree) - Refers to the number of direct connections with other persons - closeness centrality - Refers to the facility between two persons to communicate - betweeness centrality - Refers to the relevance of a person to act as a ‘bridge’ between two sub-groups of the network - eigenvector centrality - Refers to the importance of a person in the network
4. Experimental results -We collected a subset of videos from the New York Blogging Heads’ opinion blog -We used 17 videos from 15 persons -Videos depict two persons having a conversation in front of their webcam on different topics (politics, economy,…) -The conversations have an informal character and sometimes frequent interruptions can occur Snapshot from a video
-Audio features - The audio stream has been analyzed using sliding windows of 25 ms with an overlapping factor of 50%. - Each window is characterized by 13 features (12 MFCC +E), complemented with Δ and Δ 2 - The shortest length of a valid audio segment was set to 2.5 ms -Video features - 32 oriented features (corresponding to the mouth region) have been extracted using the HOG descriptor - the length of the DTW sequences has been set to 18 frames (which corresponds to 1.5 s) -Fusion process - stacked sequential learning was used to fusion the audio-visual features - Adaboost was chosen as classifier
Visual and audio-visual speaker segmentation accuracy
The extracted social network showing participants’ label and influence directions
5. Conclusions and future work - We presented an integrated framework for automatic extraction and analysis of a social network from im- plicit input (multimodal dyadic interactions), based on the integration of audio/visual features. - In the future, we are planning to extend the current work to study the problem of social interactions at larger scale and in different scenarios - Starting from the premise that people's lives are more structured than it might seem a priori, we plan to study long- term interactions between persons, with the aim to discover underlying behavioral patterns present in our day-to-day existence
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