Presentation on theme: "A window in the life and times of Jacopo Amigoni"— Presentation transcript:
1A window in the life and times of Jacopo Amigoni Venus Disarming CupidAwindow in the life and timesof Jacopo AmigoniJACOPO AMIGONI Italian, Venice (active throughout Europe), 1682/ Venus Disarming Cupid oil on canvas, 1730s or 1740s Ackland Fund 86.47
2Table of Contents Life and History of Jacopo Amigoni Ownership and PatronageFriendship of Amigoni and FarinelliPolitical ContextNatural vs. AchievedSocial ContextCultural ContextGenre: History paintingRococo Style and ExamplesSubject MatterIconographyOverviewBibliography
3Jacopo AmigoniHis international career began in 1715,( )
4A brief history of Amigoni’s life Born in1685 and trained in Venice.He worked in European countries such as England, France, Bavaria, and Spain.Venetian history and portrait painterPainted portraits and large-scale decorative paintings.Known for his Rococo style.Influenced by Sebastian Ricci and Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.He died in Spain in 1752.He worked for some years for the Elector of Bavaria and then came to London in 1730, where he painted several decorative cycles and portraits.In 1739 he returned to Venice with a small fortune, and in 1747 he went to Madrid as Court painter:Vertue records that news of his death there reached London just as his finest works - in St James's Square - were destroyed.
5Major Events during the Life of Amigoni Jacopo Amigoni ( ) in historical contextPeriod characterized by RevolutionsReligious tensionCatholic foundation vs. Protestants sola scriptura undermined authorityTheories by Locke, Hume, BerkleyLocke’s Treatises on Government (1690)- if the gov’t breaks its contract, subjects free from obligationsScientific advances of Galileo and Newton natural philosophyGalileo disproved Ptolemaic model, Newton proved heliocentricUniversal application of gravity and laws of motion inspire other ideasIf the laws of physics can be applied everywhere, why not natural rights?1733 John Kay invents flying shuttle – Industrial RevolutionEnd of Absolute MonarchyCharles I in England – beginning of a series of RevolutionsLouis XIV rOn his heels the French RevolutionBirth and rise of Voltaire (1694), Rousseau (1712), Kant (1724), Franklin (1706)Key advocates for Enlightenment thoughtReformation and CR were years earlier but Europe divided by sections of Protestants (Calvinists, Puritans, Armineans, etc.) and Catholicism Newton made such revolutionary thought discoveries (ie gravity force applied to all things) led to Industrial Revolution
6Historical Events continued… These Revolutions contribute to the rise of Enlightenment thoughtAge of ReasonNatural rights of manMuch of Rococo is reaction against Absolutism towards EnlightenmentSeen in the AmigoniSignificant because it shows bridges two important ideological movementsHumanism- man is the measure of all things
7Ownership and Patronage Carlo Broschi, known as Farinelli, a famous opera singer of the time period, was a loyal patron and active advocator of Amigoni’s workHe was also believed to be the original owner of Venus Disarming CupidThe two itinerant artist’s fed off each other’s mutual promotion which in turn helped boost the career of each within the art societies of the time.Contacts were essential to attaining success as an artist during this era.
8Amigoni and Farinelli, also known as Carlo Broschi ( ) were friends, and Farinelli was thought to have owned the painting of “Venus Disarming Cupid”The two lived in London and Paris during the same times.Farinelli owned 23 of Amigoni’s paintingsAmigoni painted many portraits of Farinelli
9This is one of the many paintings of Farinelli that was done by AMigoni (now in Melbourne) The Singer Farinelli and FriendsJacopo Amigoni
10Ritratto di Farinelli 1734-35 Jacopo Amigoni Painting that was done by Amigoni of FarinelliRitratto di FarinelliJacopo Amigoni
11Political Context Much of the Rococo is a reaction against Absolutism This picture of Louis XIV provides a good contrast between the two movementsOne major contrast is the natural versus the achievedThis is portrayed in the comparison between the male form and the female formContrast between male and female forms rebellion against political systemsPortrait de Louis XIV 1701Hyacinthe Rigaud
12Natural vs. Achieved Forest vs. palace Naked vs. robesGod vs. KingFemale vs. MaleClassical vs. ModernInnocence vs. powerNatural rights vs. King’s prerogativeFree from obligationsEnlightenment vs. AbsolutismThe emphasis on the natural reflects the ideas of the natural rights of man (authority for this is from an ancient source)
13Social ContextAfter the death of Louis XIV, art shifts to salons and wealthy homes (upper class)Wealthy wish to concentrate more upon pleasures than responsibilityRebel against the rigidity and darkness of earlier baroqueExchange of moral obligation and serious events for fantasy and carefree atmosphereArt Demonstrated optimism due to advances and belief in social progressionFrancois BoucherThe Fountain of Lovec. 1748
14A greater acceptance of sensuality is present throughout Europe. This leads to a direct engagement of the viewer.Caravaggio.Cupid. c.1601
16Cultural ContextThere were many constraints on painting at the time, especially the influence of the Académie Royale and the hierarchy of genresMany wealthy young men, from England in particular, traveled on The Grand Tour and collected artwork on their journeyExtravagance of Italian Opera and emphasis on pleasure and the frivolity- Carnival in VeniceMany Italian artists were gaining popularity with aristocrats from England who came on Grand TourThe desire for large scale history paintings switched to more portable works and commissioned portraitsPolitical movement no longer supports Rococo but moves towards NeoclassicalModern RomePaniniThe Académie Royale that began 1666 concentrated on the importance of classical tradition in painting. This was reinforced by the Grand Tour and the interest in antiquities.The hierarchy of genres was set by the Academie Royale, placing history painting as the most elite genre. Reference to religion, mythology, literature, or allegories. Amigoni’s painting in an example of a history painting because of the mythological subject and the reference to classical romanism. (Venus-goddess of love)Aristocrats and wealthy became interested in picturesque-rise in Rococo. Also a sort of idealism – seen in Venus’ perfect figure and often in history paintings as idealism of classical beauty or masculinity. Seen in portraits from Grand Tour in order to display the wealth/power of the aristocrats.History paintings were so large-scale and grand…as William Hogarth said “Our apartments are too small to contain them” so a popular movement to smaller scale paintings. Exemplified by the portable scale of Venus Disarming Cupid.
17Genre: History painting MythologyGrand events in Greek or Roman historyReference to literature and religionIdealization of human figure-classicalAllegory/ideas
18Bathsheba Bathing 1725 Sebastiano Rici Bathsheba bathing, 1725, Sebastiano Rici. Another Venetian painter who had success in EnglandBathsheba Bathing 1725Sebastiano Rici
19Venus and Cupid, Giovani Antonio Pellegrini Represents the success of other Venetian painters*This piece by Pelligrini is thought to have been a direct reference to “Venus Chastising Cupid” because of the similar positions and style theme in both paintings.Venus and CupidGiovani Antoni Pellegrini
20Elements of Rococo Style Emerged in France during the early eighteenth centuryVery romanticCharacterized by richness, lightness, and loveFocused on carefree aristocratic life and lighthearted romanceS-curvesOften involves natural settings, cherubs, and peaceful scenes.Departure from Baroque’s church/state traditionRococo style was characterized by a richness, lightness, and love. It was often set in nature and the exterior, and focused on the carefree aristocratic life and on lighthearted romance, rather than battles or religious figures as in neo-classicism. “Venus Disarming Cupid” is a prime example of Amigoni’s Rococo style, the S-curves are distinctive of Rococo paintings. Rococo painters used “delicate colors and curving forms, decorating their canvases with cherubs and myths of love” (Art). This describes Amigoni’s painting precisely. From the innocent cherubs in the background to the soft image of Venus that is graceful, lighthearted and peaceful. Even the act of “chastising” is made elegant because there is a lack of severity or harshness in her features as she holds the arrow away from young Cupid. The overall painting is deficient of any cruelty or insensitivity.
21Vulcan Handing Venus the Weapons for Aeneas Francois Boucher The Birth of VenusFrancois BoucherHere are some works of the Rococo movement. Gives an overview of this genre.Vulcan Handing Venus the Weapons for AeneasFrancois Boucher
22An Artistic Contrast:: Cupid Chastised by Mars This contrasts the original painting of Cupid being disciplined by Venus because Mars would be a much harsher disciplinarian. He does not represent the femininity, love, and lightheartedness of Venus.“Cupid Chastised”An Artistic Contrast:: Cupid Chastised by Mars
24Was kissing her, his quiver dangling down JACOPO AMIGONI Italian, Venice (active throughout Europe), 1682/ Venus Disarming Cupid oil on canvas, 1730s or 1740s Ackland Fund 86.47Ackland Art MuseumChapel Hill, NCThe incident in myth that Amigoni depicts occurs in Book X of Ovid. Venus accidentally falls in love with Adonis when one of Cupid’s arrows grazes her chest.“…Once, when Venus’ sonWas kissing her, his quiver dangling downA jutting arrow, unbeknown, had grazedHer breast. She pushed the boy away.In fact the wound was deeper than it seemed,Though unperceived at first…”
25The beauty of a man, she cared no more AMIGONI, Jacopo Venus and Adonis Date unknownOil on canvas, 142 x 173 cm Alte Pinakothek, MunichVenus’s love with Adonis fascinates many artists, so it is a fairly common subject. (Impelluso 240)“…Enraptured byThe beauty of a man, she cared no moreFor her Cythera’s shores nor sought againHer sea-girt Paphos nor her Cnidos, famedFor fish, nor her ore-laden Amathus.She shunned heaven too: to heaven she preferredAdonis…”
26Venus Venus was the Roman goddess of sensual love. Venus’s nakedness and splayed body suggest both vulnerability to the arrow and the idealization of feminine beauty and sensuality by male artists during the Rococo period. (Heleniak 641; Goodman 323; Goodman 325)Venus
27Cupid was the Roman god who caused people to fall in love with his arrows. Artists commonly depict him as “a clever, somewhat impudent winged child”; occasionally punished for mischief (Impelluso 66).Cupid
28Putti, or cherubs, are generally attendants of deities like Venus in European art of this period (Pierce 122). The winged children are derived from Christian angels (Whittlesey 62).In Rococo paintings, they lend an air of levity with their playful antics, making the painting pleasurable to look at (Pierce 122).Putti
29Forest, Spring, and Summer In art, the forest, especially a clearing, is a sacred and secluded place ofunexplored femininity, nature, and regeneration (Battistini ).In art, spring and summer signify the rapture of love and marriage and fertility, respectively (Adler 793).Forest, Spring, and Summer
30Red and pink signify the passion of love. White creates a sense of innocence in this painting of Venus and Cupid to balance the sensuality in the painting.White:Drapery Color
31The bow alludes to the moderation of instinctual drives (Battistini 343). Here it is a toy for the putto in the clouds; Venus’s passion for Adonis will be unrestrained.The arrows “allude to amorous glances that pierce the heart like darts” (Battistini 343).Bow and Arrows
32Looking Back… This presentation has covered: ~the life of Amigoni and his place in history~the relationship between Farinelli and Amigoni~the cultural, political, and social contexts of Venus Disarming Cupid~the genre of history painting~elements of Rococo style~the iconography and subject matter of Venus Disarming Cupid
34BibliographyBlanning, T.C.W., ed. The Eighteenth Century: Europe New York, Oxford University Press, 2000.Department of European Paintings. "The Grand Tour". In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2003)Elise Goodman, “Female Beauty and Adornment” Vol. 1, A-L; Helene E. Roberts, Ed., Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art., (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998).E.S. Whittlesey, Symbols and Legends in Western Art: A Museum Guide, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972).Galitz, Kathryn Calley. "The French Academy in Rome". In Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2003)Helene E. Roberts, Ed., Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art., (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998).Hubala, Erich. Baroque and Rococo Art. New York: Universe Books, 1976.James Smith Pierce, From Abacus to Zeus: A Handbook of Art History, Fifth Edition (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1995).
35Bibliography continued… Kathryn Moore Heleniak, “Naked/Nude” Vol. 2, M-Z; Helene E. Roberts, Ed., Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art., (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998).Lucia Impelluso, Gods and Heroes in Art, Ed.Stefano Zuffi, Trans. Thomas Michael Hartmann, (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2002).Matilde Battistini, Allegories and Symbols in Art, Trans. Stephen Sartarelli. (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust, 2005).Minor, Vernon Hyde. Baroque and Rococo Art and Culture. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1999.Pignatti, Terisio. The Age of Rococo. London: Cassell Publishers Limited, 1988.Shane Adler, “Seasons” Vol. 2 M-Z; Helene E. Roberts, Ed., Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography: Themes Depicted in Works of Art., (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1998).Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 95. (1964), pp