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Structure and Bonding in Organic Chemistry Electron Configurations Lewis Dot Structures Hybridization Orbital depictions

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Organic Chemist’s Periodic Table

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Molecular Model of Aspirin

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Nucleus is a Tiny Fraction of the Volume of an Atom

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Orbitals are Probabilities

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2s Orbital Has a Node

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Bonding in H 2 Sigma ( Bond

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Wave Depiction of H 2

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Molecular Orbitals Mathematical Combination of Atomic Orbitals

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Antibonding Molecular Orbital Destructive Overlap Creates Node

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and * of H 2

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Energy Released When Bond Forms

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Electron Configurations

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Ground State Electron Configurations

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The p Orbital

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p x, p y, p z

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Electron Configuration of Carbon

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Lewis Dot Structure of Methane

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All Have the Same Geometry All Have 4 Regions of Electron Density

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Tetrahderal Geometry

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Methane Representations

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In Ground State 2 bonding sites, 1 lone pair

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sp 3 Hybridization 4 Regions of electron Density link link

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Hybridization of 1 s and 3 p Orbitals – sp 3

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sp 3 is Tetrahedral Geometry Methane

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Ammonia Tetrahedral Geometry Pyramidal Shape

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Orbital Depiction of Ethane, C 2 H 6, the bond

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Depictions of 2-Methylbutane

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Bonding Characteristics of Period 2 Elements

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“Saturated” with Hydrogen

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A Model of a Saturated Hydrocarbon

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sp 2 Hybridization 3 Regions of Electron Density

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Hybridization of 1 s and 2 p Orbitals – sp 2

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An sp 2 Hybridized Atom

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The bond Overlap of 2 parallel p Orbitals

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Ethylene CH 2 =CH 2

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Views of Ethylene, C 2 H 4

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Ethylene

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Formaldehyde

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sp Hybridization 2 Regions of Electron Density

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The sp Orbital

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Acetylene, C 2 H 2, 1 bond 2 perpendicular bonds

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Drawing Structures

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Octane Representations

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Condensed Formulas

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Line-Angle Structures are Often Used as a Short-hand

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Line-Angle Structures

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Line-Angle structure Superimposed on Lewis Structure

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Double Bonds are Shown

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For Cyclic Structures, Draw the Corresponding Polygon

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Drawing Clear Structures

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Structures take Cues from Models

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Some Steroids

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Benzene can be drawn as one of two resonance structures

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Some Line-Angle Structures

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