Presentation on theme: "Solving the Problem Purpose, Objectives, Questions, Hypotheses Back to Class 6."— Presentation transcript:
Solving the Problem Purpose, Objectives, Questions, Hypotheses Back to Class 6
Purpose and Objectives The purpose of the study includes the aims or goals the investigator hopes to achieve with the research. It gives an idea of what the researcher hopes to do, in general, to solve the problem. The objectives tell you what approach the researcher has decided to take to solve the problem. I your text, these statements are merged. For the proposal you are going to write, both will be required.
Purpose of Objectives To set out the goals the researcher intends to achieve. To justify why those goals were selected instead of others, especially if others are obvious.
The Problem – why do you need to do something The Purpose – what, in general, do you need to do The Objectives – what approach will you take to do it Implement Action Train … or Reorganize … or Initiate … or Re-engineer …or Develop a Product Assess/describe Invent Package Test Distribute Evaluate a Program Objectives Decide criteria for success Evaluate input, process (formative) or outcome (summative) Research Phenomena Depict (qualitatively or quantitatively) Relate (compare or contrast) Conceptualize Test a conceptu- alization or theory
Objectives In developing objectives, the first step is to determine what approach is to be taken. There are four kinds of approaches: –To implement some action –To develop something by invention –To evaluate something –To conduct research (You will take this approach)
Action Research The purpose is to respond to some need that you identify as not having been met. You do this by implementing some action through training, administrative reorganization, program initiation, etc.
Development Research The purpose of development research is to determine the status quo, to figure out a way of altering that status by inventing a solution, to assemble and package the solution so that it will be usable by others in the situation for which it was designed, then to test or evaluate the package to see if it is a desirable alternative to the status quo, then to distribute it.
Evaluation Research The purpose of evaluation research is to document the effect of what you are doing in your system for the purpose of making decisions. You must identify objectives for the research. You must select criteria to be used to determine success. You must consider input, process and output in measuring the level of success, and you must make recommendations for actions based on the data you obtained.
Traditional Research The purpose of traditional research is first to describe, in detail, what you see in terms of variables (concepts). Then it is possible to relate the concepts, either by comparing or contrasting them or by correlating them. Once relationships are determined, they can be accounted for by developing a conceptual framework through which the relationships can be predicted. Then, these predictions can be tested.
Decide on the Type of Approach For this class, you will be conducting traditional research, unless you really think your problem warrants one of the other three approaches. The other approaches are just as valuable to nursing, but for me to answer questions about all four approaches during class would make the class more confusing. Those who elect to follow one of the other approaches will have to come to me individually so I can answer specific questions.
Selecting Objectives In an objective, there are two aspects The Action Aspect – the verb – this has very little variation- there are only a few verbs that can be used The Content Aspect – this will vary depending upon the subject (substantive material) of your research and the framework you are using
Objectives continued If you were using development research you would have to: –Describe the situation needing a solution –Invent a solution –Fabricate a package (put it into a form that could be used by others) –Test the package –Disperse or disseminate the package You could use words that are synonyms for the underlined verbs, but you would still have to carry out the same five actions
Objectives continued You are going to conduct traditional research, and with that you are limited to one to four verbs: –To depict concepts –To relate concepts –To conceptualize a framework or theory –To test a framework or theory you have put forth For research, you do not have to do all four
Objectives cont. At this stage, you will be doing one of the first two actions: –To depict To depict qualitatively - to describe, to identify, to define, to distinguish, to determine To depict quantitatively – to appraise, to rate, to count, to rank, to measure, to standardize, to norm, to extrapolate
Objectives cont. –To relate: –To relate qualitatively – to compare, to liken, to contrast, to collate, to match –To relate quantitatively – to correlate, to connect, to associate, to regress
Objectives cont. You must decide on what level of research you will be working – are you only going to describe or are you also going to relate. Set up a grid with the action aspect (verb) on one side and the content aspects (substantive area) on the other. This will help you determine possible objectives. Select the objective you wish to accomplish – you won’t be able to accomplish them all
Objectives – Grid example Action Aspect Content Aspect To determine The effect of intra- operative teaching of nurses on their ability to provide comfort measures to post-operative orthopedic patients
Objectives for Determining Stress in Nursing Students vs. Other Students ActionContent –To determinelevel of stress in nursing students (NS) –To determinelevel of stress in education students –To determinelevel of stress in PT students –To determine level of stress in HHP students –To determinelevel of stress in Pre-med students –To compare level of stress in NS with Educ. students –To compare level of stress in NS with PT student –To compare level of stress in NS with HHP students –To compare level of stress in NS with Pre-M students
Questions and Hypotheses These break down the still broad objectives into components and elements that can be worked on operationally. They must flow from the conceptual framework. They will guide the design or procedures. They must be stated prior to collecting data.
Questions These are used in exploratory and preliminary studies. They are ways of learning more about some phenomenon – ways of gathering enough data to develop hypotheses. They must be clearly stated so that they can be as rigorously answered as an hypothesis would be.
Hypotheses A hypothesis is a statement of your expected outcome based on your rationale. It is a prediction, from uncertain evidence, about the relationship between two or more variables. It is an educated guess
Purposes of Hypotheses To narrow the field of the research and give more direction to the research To identify, in measurable terms, what the researcher believes to be the cause and effect of a given situation To state a relationship specifically so that the relationship can be tested – found to be probable or not probable (Can’t test good, bad, moral or ethical situation)
Variables Variables are measurable or potentially measurable components which may fluctuate in quantity or quality. A variable is anything that can change or vary – a symbol to which numbers or values are assigned.
Variables cont. Independent variable (IV)– stands alone, does not rely on any other variable. It is usually stated first. Dependent variable (DV)– the effect of the action of the independent variable. It cannot exist by itself. In research, the researcher manipulates the IV to determine if it is the cause. Control of the IV should control the DV.
Variables cont. Extraneous variables – those that are uncontrolled or lie outside of the interest of the researcher Controlled variables – those that are held constant so that the results are unaffected by them Intervening variables – those that come between the IV and the DV. They can’t be measured but the researcher can attempt to reduce intensity – stress, anxiety
Variables cont. Confounding variables – those that influence the DV by interfering – patient’s attitude toward recovery (wants insurance or compensation) Antecedent variables – those that come before the IV and bear a relationship to it and the DV – such as poor nutrition
Variables cont. Organismic variables – those that cannot ethically be changed by the researcher such as age, sex, marital status Discrete variables – exist only in units – eye color, race Dichotomous variables – have only two categories – male/female Continuous variables – those for which a fractional value exists and has meaning – age, height, weight
Causation At first you may just recognize that a cause and effect occur together, then you have to determine the relationship –Essential condition – it is necessary to cause the effect –Contributary condition – it may contribute to causing the effect by there may also be other factors
Causation –Contingent condition – the possibility exists that it causes the effect –Alternative condition – it may or may not cause the effect, depending upon the circumstances. Researchers can’t investigate all possibilities. They must choose the most likely with the constraints of time
Wording an Hypothesis It must be stated in operational terms – the terms relating to the IV and the DV must be defined so that everyone interprets them the same way It must be stated in precise, scientific language It must be conceptually clear – it must be measurable and observers must agree on the measurement It should be related to a theory so that the finding will be relevant
Types of Hypotheses Simple hypotheses – one IV & one DV Complex hypotheses – more than one IV or DV or both Null or statistical hypothesis – states there is no relationship between IV and DV – the DV was changed by chance Research/scientific hypothesis – states there is a relationship, usually states the direction –Non-directional Hypotheses – related but ? how –Directional hypotheses – related either + or -
Conceptual vs. Operational Definitions of Variables A conceptual definition conveys the general meaning of the concept such as might be found in a dictionary. It can reflect the framework used in the study. An operational definition gives you the procedures or operations required to measure the concept. It supplies the information needed to collect data Back to Class 6