2Classical Period –Gupta Empire 320-550AD Outpouring of science, literature, music and the visual artsIt established the iconography of Hindu and Buddhist divinities.A more unified style:Buddah is now depicted in human form , very serene, with eyes cast down, averted from the world as if in meditationCloth very close to the bodyOpen hand gesture-dharma chakra mudra…Hinduism is on the riseSandstone statue of preaching Buddha, fifth century ad. Archaeoiogicai Museum, Sarnath.
3Hinduism Represents the god Shiva, and Vishnu, instead of Buddha Relief showing Vishnu -. Vishnu Temple.The thick and animated network of figures on a variety of levels,and the luminosity and sensuality of the high-relief sculpture are very striking.
4VishnuLord Vishnu represents the aspect of the Supreme Reality that preserves and sustains the universeHe is generally symbolized by a human body with four arms. In His hands He carries a conch (indicates that the Lord communicates with his devotees with love and understanding ), a mace (denotes his energy ), and discus (he uses this weapon to protect his devotees from evil. ) His front right hand is depicted bestowing grace on His devotees. .He has a blue body and wears yellow clothes. The Lord is shown standing on a thousand-headed snake (named Shesha Nag), and the snake stands with its hoods open over the head of the Lord. The two front arms signify the lord's activity in the physical world and the two back arms signify His activity in the spiritual world
5Brahma Brahma is the Hindu god of creation and one of the Trimurti, Brahma is self-born (without mother) in the lotus flower which grew from the navel of Vishnu at the beginning of the universe.Another legend says that Brahma was born in water. In this he deposited a seed that later became the golden egg. From this golden egg, Brahma the creator was born. The remaining materials of this golden egg expanded into the Brahm-anda or Universe.Brahma is said also to be the son of the Supreme Being, Brahman and the female energy known as Prakrti or Maya.
6ShivaShiva is called the Destroyer (of evil), but has also the aspect of regeneration. As destroyer he is dark and terrible, .accompanied by a train of hideous demons, encircled with serpents and necklaces. He is also shown with reproductive power, he is worshipped in the form of the shivling or shiva linga (lingam).The dance of Shiva is symbolic of the dynamic forces of creation and destruction, and the harmonious balance of opposites.Most images of the dancing Shiva depict him with four arms, which represent the four cardinal directions of space.
7India (1000-1400) India-strong and expanding (Buddhist and Hindu) Cult of Siva dominant (Siva Nataraja Lord of the Dance- spoke of creation and destruction)Temples are shaped to represent the mountain residence of SivaTemples are lavishly decorated, strict rules of symbolismDetailed, often erotic figures decorated templeThe Muslims would gain control of northern India at the end of the century and not allow the icon symbolismIn Europe- the Middle Ages (dominance of the church), time of the crusades.
8This bronze sculpture, entitled Shiva as Nataraja (Lord of the Dance) (about AD 1000), is one of a number of sculptures of the Hindu god Shiva made during India’s Chola dynasty (10th century to 13th century). The sculpture shows Shiva dancing within a circle of fire. One of the god’s hands holds a flame, while the other beats on a drum. His foot rests on the demon of ignorance.
9Ganesha, son of Shiva, Hoysala Sculpture- 13th century Soft soapstoneGanesha is worshipped as the lord of beginnings and as the lord of obstacles (Vighnesha), patron of arts and sciences, and the god of intellect and wisdom.
10ArchitectureName: Kandariya Mahadeo Temple Place: Khajuraho Time Period/Chronology: C.1000 A.Dthe largest and most ornate Hindu temple in the medieval temple group found at Khajuraho in Madhya Pradesh, India. It is considered one of the best examples of temples preserved from the medieval period in India.
11Decorating the sides of the temple are over 646 statues -Khajuraho extended over 21 sq. km and contained about 85 temples built by multiple rulers from about 950 to 1050.its remoteness probably saved it from the desecration that Muslim conquerors generally inflicted on Hindu monuments. They were rediscovered in 1838Of the 85 original temples—most constructed of hard river sandstone—about 20 are still reasonably well preserved. Both internally and externally the temples are richly carved with excellent sculptures that are frequently sensual and, at times, sexually explicit.The main spire or shikhara rises 31 m to depict Mount Meru, the holy mountain of Shiva and is surrounded by 84 miniature spiresDecorating the sides of the temple are over 646 statues
12Many of the side panels depict Shiva in the presence of apsaras, consorts, and other divinities. These erotic figures do not span the whole temple and are not to be found among the 226 found inside
13Meanwhile over in the West-1000-1100 Europe-Basically a climate of political stability and economic expansion in the west due to national monarchies…STILL….On 15 July 1099, the armies of the First Crusade captured Jerusalem and massacred its defenders to claim the city for Christianity88 years later, Saladin, the charismatic leader of the Muslim Near East, retook the holy city for Islam.Within three years, Richard the Lionheart was leading the Third Crusade. Yet, despite winning several battles, he failed to take Jerusalem.
14INDIA AND ISLAM Islam is expanding India’s warring rulers left the door open for the Islam religion to spread to Northern IndiaTaking of Delhi on Muslim domination in Northern India would remain for centuries (founding of the Delhi Sultanate in 1193)Hinduism still strong in Southern IndiaIt took a century and a half to take over India as it retreated southward.
15Northern Muslim/Indian Art The exotic art of Hindu and Buddhist India was considered Icons by the Muslim conquerors, many temples were destroyedThe Mosque of Islam at Delhi was supplied by stones taken from Hindu shrinesDominant feature is the Qutb Minar a great minaret begun in 1199 and conceived as a tower of victoryInscriptions from the Koran, decoration traditional Indian inspiration
17India ( )N. India splits due to wars, facilitated Muslim expansion-Muhammad Ghuri founder of Muslim powerReligious freedom was basically allowed, they did not impose their religion on the Hindu minoritySculpture, and some temples, destroyed due to imageryStill Southern India remained until the 14th century- Tamil empire of Hindu CholasArchitecture rich in detail- sculpture more important than architectureBuilding very modest in scale
18Kesava Temple at Somnathpur Location South West Of Bangalore, KarnatakaConsecrated In: 1268 A.D, Hoysala craftsmanship. Dedicated To: Lord Keshava
19Keshava (Krishna) temple was built in 1268 by the Hoysala general Somanatha, during the reign of king Narasimha III. This gem of a building is the last, and best-preserved, of the major Hoysala temples. The entrance (East-facing) to the temple is framed by lathe-turned columns.
22Krishna, surrounded by attendants, plays the flute beneath a tree Krishna, surrounded by attendants, plays the flute beneath a tree. His dress and crown are richly ornamented. The typically rococo (ornate and intricate) manner of such sculptures makes the Hoysala one of the easiest styles to recognize in Indian art.
26India ( )As Muslim advances into India Hindu and Buddhist artistic traditions were on the declineImages were broken due to the erotic art of the Hindu religionSurya Temple SW of Calcutta escaped their attentionMeanwhile in the west…
27Mongol invasion, of vast areas of Asia and some of Europe It is believed, they brought wares from China but also the bubonic plagueWe know it as the BLACK DEATH or BLACK PLAGUE or THE BUBONIC PLAGUE (1/3 of Europe was wiped out)Ottoman Turks-14th century- (from Antolia) brought down Constantinople-advance stopped in Samarkand (Tamerlane)Muslims still have a small part of Spain in Granada
28Surya Temple-Temple of the Sun-during the reign of Narasimhadeva representation of the chariot of the sun-god SuryaIt was conceived as the chariot of the sun god, Surya, carried upon twelve pairs of wheels representing the months, and drawn by seven horses representing the days of the week
29Included seven sculptured horses of the god myth to draw it
30One of the horses that draw the Sun's chariot Source:http://www.cmp.caltech.edu/~mcc/India/PictureShow/Puri.html
31A wheel of the Sun's chariot A wheel of the Sun's chariot – the body of the temple was carried by 12 great wheels
32Wall detail of the temple – Above the wheels erotic paired-off sculptures which have made the Temple notorious
33The king, on an elephant, being presented with a giraffe sent by an African king
34Surya Deva himself, with his charioteer and horses below his feet
35IndiaMostly under Islamic reign, so we will cover the art under Islamic art latter on in the semester