# Chapter 9 Organizing and Using Data. Using Data behavior therapy uses data to plan and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions current data on antecedents,

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Chapter 9 Organizing and Using Data

Using Data behavior therapy uses data to plan and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions current data on antecedents, behavior, and consequences are important baselines can provide information about seriousness of problems baselines serve as a reference for evaluating the effectiveness of therapy

Organizing Data arithmetic calculations can help summarize and clarify data the mean is the sum of responses divided by the number of observations the mean allows one to see the average response percentages allow for better comparisons between observations made in periods with different opportunities to perform

Organizing Data (continued) percentages adjust for differences in length of observation periods tables can organize data in ways that make changes or differences easier to evaluate

Tables Table 9.1 Frequency of cigarette smoking each day for 2 weeks of baseline Weeks Day of WeekOneTwo Monday 19 15 Tuesday 16 17 Wednesday 16 18 Thursday 17 16 Friday 17 17 Saturday 24 25 Sunday 21 20

Types of Graphs graphs are drawings that depict variations within a set of data line graphs plot time or sessions on the horizontal axis and the dependent measure on the vertical axis bar graphs typically use the height of a rectangle to represent the strength of responses for different conditions

Types of Graphs (continued) cumulative records or graphs depict the total number of responses since observations were first made line graphs are used to show changes over a period of time under different conditions bar graphs are used to compare discrete categories cumulative graphs more accurately depict changes in rate of responding

Line Graphs

Bar Graphs

Cumulative Graph

Making a Graph graphs should help communicate accurate information about the data graphs should be easy to read all elements of graphs should be clearly labeled limit graphs to essential information create a clear and fair picture of the data use geometric figures (not colored lines) for data points

Using Graphs graphs can be used to show effectiveness of therapy graphs can be displayed to serve as a reminder and to reinforce progress public display of graphs can encourage others to help public display of graphs can increase commitment

Ways to Assess a Program's Progress consult the individual consult experts evaluate graphs –look at the general trend of change –compare data for current behavior under intervention with baseline data –compare means of baseline and intervention period

Problems in Graphic Analyses poor baselines can create problems with graphic analysis high variability can make it difficult to conclude a change occurred trends in baseline behavior in the direction of anticipated change make it unclear whether the behavior changed due to intervention short baselines can provide too little information about trends

Troubleshooting: Discovering Why a Program Isn't Working did the functional analyses identify the relevant elements of the behavior and situation? were the best treatment techniques selected for the problem? was treatment delivered consistently?

Improving a Program: Managing Antecedents were prompts, models and instructions effective? did you effectively narrow, eliminate, or break chains of antecedents? were CSs of a stimulus hierarchy properly arranged and applied?

Improving a Program: Managing Behavior was the target behavior clearly defined? were shaping procedures appropriate for the skill level of the individual? were prerequisite skills lacking? was the person able to relax? were clear images created with covert conditioning? were appropriate alternative responses encouraged?

Improving a Program: Managing Consequences did reinforcers loose value? were reinforcers applied appropriately? did consequences change behavior as anticipated? was extinction applied appropriately? were lottery or group contingencies applied appropriately?

Improving a Program: Procedural Aspects of the Program was assessment accurate and appropriate? were data collection procedures overly difficult, complex, or time consuming? were program procedures implemented as planned? did those administering programs use techniques in the same way? was the contract mutually agreed on and clear?

Improving a Program: Procedural Aspects of the Program (continued) did outside factors disrupt the program? did you observe problems with motivation or training for the individual or those administering treatment?

Tips on Using Data and Improving Programs table data frequently examine data for trends or excessive variability construct neat and accurate graphs and tables identify possible explanations for unusual patterns of behavior sketch graphs before constructing final version

Tips on Using Data and Improving Programs (continued) use appropriate labels to make graph self- explanatory do a full graphic analysis after about a week when troubleshooting, keep written notes on your evaluation add data to graph periodically and evaluate progress

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