Presentation on theme: "Focus Four Hazard Training For Masonry Construction"— Presentation transcript:
1Focus Four Hazard Training For Masonry Construction Module 3 – Fall ProtectionSusan Harwood Grant Training Program
2Disclaimer/Usage Notes This material was produced under grant number SH SH8 from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. It does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. Images shown may depict situations that are not in compliance with applicable OSHA requirements. These photos are clearly marked as non-compliant.It is not the intent of RMMI to provide compliance-based training in this presentation, the intent is more to address Focus Four hazard awareness in the masonry construction industry, and to recognize overlapping hazards present in many construction workplaces.It is the responsibility of the employer, its subcontractors, and its employees to comply with all pertinent rules and regulations in the jurisdiction in which they work. Copies of all OSHA regulations are available from This presentation is intended to discuss Federal regulations only. If this training is held in a state that is operating under an OSHA-approved State Plan, State OSHA requirements for that state must be included in the training. It is assumed that individuals using this presentation or content to augment their training programs will be "qualified" to do so.Developed under an OSHA Susan Harwood Grant, # SH SH8, by the Rocky Mountain Masonry Institute, Denver, Colorado
3Training Objectives L & M Masonry Fall Protection SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection1Training ObjectivesAfter completing this unit, you will:-Be aware of the requirement for fall protection for masonry work.-Be able to recognize fall hazards associated with masonry work.-Be familiar with fall protection devices.-Be knowledgeable of safe work practices.
4References 29 CFR 1926 Subparts L & M L & M Masonry Fall Protection 2
5Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection3Scaffold ErectionThe employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. A Competent Person is "one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them."
6L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection4Scaffold ErectionThe employer shall have each employee who is involved in erecting, disassembling, moving, operating, repairing or maintaining a scaffold trained by a competent person to recognize any hazards associated with the work in question.
7L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection5Scaffold ErectionInspect all scaffold components prior to erecting scaffold. Look for bend frames and cross braces, broken pins, damaged planks, etc.Photos depict hazardous condition
8L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection6Scaffold ErectionSupported scaffold poles, legs, posts, frames, and uprights shall bear on base plates AND mud sills or other adequate foundations.
9Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection 7 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection7Scaffold ErectionPhotos depict hazardous condition
10Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection 8 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection8Scaffold ErectionPhotos depict hazardous condition
11L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection9Scaffold ErectionLadders shall be installed as soon as scaffold erection has progressed to a point that permits safe installation and use.
12L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection10Scaffold ErectionGuardrail systems shall be installed before the scaffold is released for use by employees other than the erection crew.Photo depicts hazardous condition
13Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection11Scaffold ErectionThe employer shall have a competent person determine the feasibility and safety of providing fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds. Employers are required to provide fall protection for employees erecting or dismantling supported scaffolds where the installation and use of such protection is feasible and does not create a greater hazard. The employer must be able to explain and support a decision that it creates a greater hazard. Even if the competent person determines that being tied off during erection is not feasible, a harness/lanyard must still be worn by the workers.Photo depicts hazardous condition
14L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection12Scaffold Erection
15Where uplift can occur, scaffold frames shall be pinned together. L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection13Scaffold ErectionWhere uplift can occur, scaffold frames shall be pinned together.
16Scaffold Erection L & M No paint on wood platforms SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection14Scaffold ErectionNo paint on wood platformsUse scaffold grade woodComponent pieces used must match and be of the same typeErect on stable and level groundLock wheels and braces before using mobile scaffoldPhoto depicts hazardous condition
17L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection15Scaffold ErectionEach platform on all working levels of scaffolds shall be fully planked or decked between the front uprights and the guardrail supports.Photo depicts hazardous condition
18Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection 16 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection16Scaffold ErectionPhotos depict hazardous condition
19L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection17Scaffold ErectionPlatforms shall be installed so that the space between adjacent units and the space between the platform and the uprights is no more than 1 inch wide, except where the employer can demonstrate that a wider space is necessary.Photo depicts hazardous condition
20L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection18Scaffold ErectionEach end of a planked deck, unless cleated or otherwise secured by hooks or equivalent means, shall extend over the centerline of it’s support at least 6 inches but not more than 12 inches.
21Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection 20 19 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection2019Scaffold ErectionPhotos depict hazardous condition
22L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection20Scaffold ErectionPlank overlapping will only occur over supports. The overlap will not be less than 12 inches unless the platforms are nailed/screwed together or otherwise restrained to prevent movement.Photo depicts hazardous condition
23L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection21Scaffold ErectionThe height of the scaffold should not be more than four times its minimum base dimension unless guys, ties, or braces are used.20’5’
24Scaffold Erection L & M Masonry Fall Protection 22 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection22Scaffold ErectionPhoto depicts hazardous condition
25L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection23Scaffold AccessWhen scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of access, portable ladders, hook-on ladders, attachable ladders, stair towers, ramps, walkways, integral prefabricated scaffold access, or direct access from another scaffold, structure, personnel hoist, or similar surface shall be used.Photo depicts hazardous condition
26L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection24Scaffold AccessHook-on and attachable ladders shall have a minimum rung length of11 1/2 inches and have uniformly spaced rungs with a maximum spacing between rungs of 16 3/4 inches.
27Scaffold Access L & M Choose the correct type of portable ladder: SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection25Scaffold AccessChoose the correct type of portable ladder:Type IAA Special Duty can handle up to 375 lbs.Type IA Heavy Duty can handle up to 300 lbs.Type I ladders are rated up to 250 lbs.Type II ladders are rated up to 225lbs.Type III ladders(light duty) up to 200lbsIt should be noted that type II and type III ladders are not meant for construction use, nor is a step ladder an adequate means of scaffold access
28Scaffold Access L & M Rungs must be intact and free from grease or oil SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection26Scaffold AccessRungs must be intact and free from grease or oilMake sure there are no visible defects on the ladder (missing, cracked or loose rungs, missing safety feet, or signs of rot)Metal ladders should not be dented or bentAll braces are secure
29Scaffold Access L & M Masonry Fall Protection 27 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection27Scaffold AccessPhotos depict hazardous condition
30L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection28Scaffold AccessUse the 4 to 1 rule: Set the ladder 1 foot out for every 4 feet up to the point of support. (Rungs are normally 1 ft apart, so its easy to figure the angle).
31Scaffold Access All ladders must extended 36 inches above the landing L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection29Scaffold AccessAll ladders must extended 36 inches above the landingMake sure the base of the ladder is tied or held and the top is anchoredPhoto depicts hazardous condition
32Scaffold Access L & M Masonry Fall Protection 30 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection30Scaffold AccessPhotos depict hazardous condition
33L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection31Scaffold AccessIf used, stair towers must have stairrails/handrails as well as guardrails on the open sides of all landings.
34L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection32Scaffold AccessIntegral prefabricated scaffold access frames shall:Be specifically designed and constructed for use as ladder rungs and have a rung length of at least 8 inches.
35L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection33Scaffold AccessThese rungs are at least 11 ½ inches wide and no more than 16 ¾ apart and can be used as a work platform for scaffold erection and for scaffold access by users.
36L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection34Scaffold AccessThese rungs are not at least 11 ½ inches wide so they CANNOT be used for access by scaffold users. They can be used for access during scaffold erection/dismantling as long as they are not more than 22 inches apart vertically.
37L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection35Scaffold AccessDirect access to or from another surface shall be used only when the scaffold is not more than 14 inches horizontally and not more than 24 inches vertically from the other surface.24”14”
38L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection36Scaffold AccessCross braces on tubular welded frame scaffolds shall not be used as a means of access or egress, even by erectors building or dismantling the scaffold.Photo depicts hazardous condition
39Scaffold Access L & M Masonry Fall Protection 37 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection37Scaffold AccessPhotos depict hazardous condition
40L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection38Scaffold UseThe front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 14 inches from the face of the work, unless guard-rail systems are erected along the front edge and/or personal fall arrest systems are used.Photo depicts hazardous condition
41Scaffold Use Each scaffold walkway shall be at least 18 inches wide. L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection39Scaffold UseEach scaffold walkway shall be at least 18 inches wide.Photo depicts hazardous condition
42L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection40Scaffold UseThe top rail shall be installed between 38 & 45 inches above the deck shall be provided on the open sides and ends of each working level when it is 10 feet or more above a lower surface.
43L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection41Scaffold UseEach top rail shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along it’s top edge of at least 200 pounds.Photo depicts hazardous condition
44L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection42Scaffold UseMid rails, screens, etc. of a guardrail system shall be installed midway between the top rail and the deck and be capable of withstanding, without failure, at least 150 pounds.Photo depicts hazardous condition
45Scaffold Use L & M Masonry Fall Protection 43 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection43Scaffold UsePhotos depict hazardous condition
46L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection44Scaffold UseGuardrails shall also be surfaced to prevent injury to an employee from punctures or lacerations, and to prevent snagging of clothing.Photo depicts hazardous condition
47Scaffold Use L & M Masonry Fall Protection 45 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection45Scaffold UsePhoto depicts hazardous condition
48L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection46Scaffold UseCross bracing is acceptable in place of a midrail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 20 and 30 inches above the work platform. . .Photo depicts hazardous condition
49L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection47Scaffold Use. . . or as a top rail when the crossing point of the two braces is between 38 and 48 inches above the work platform.Photo depicts hazardous condition
50L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection48Scaffold UseFall protection must also be provided at the exposed ends of the walk planks as well as openings in front of the workers.
51Scaffold Use L & M Masonry Fall Protection 49 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection49Scaffold UsePhotos depict hazardous condition
52L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection50Scaffold UseMakeshift devices, such as, but not limited to, boxes, barrels and ladders, shall not be used on top of scaffold platforms to increase the working level height of employees.Photos depict hazardous condition
53L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection51Scaffold UseEmployees shall be prohibited from working on scaffolds with snow, ice, or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such materials. Do not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds.
54L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection52Scaffold UseMason was working on the third level of a tubular welded frame scaffold which was covered with ice and snow.The scaffold was not fully decked, there was no guardrail and no access ladder.The worker slipped and fell head first 20 feet to the pavement below.
55The use of shore, lean-to or makeshift scaffolds is prohibited. L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection53Scaffold UseThe use of shore, lean-to or makeshift scaffolds is prohibited.Photos depict hazardous condition
56Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection54Forklifts/Aerial LiftsUsing a forklift as an aerial lift can only be done when the following requirements are met:The forklift manufacturer approves the use of their equipment for such purposesAn engineered/approved platform meeting the OSHA requirements for fall protection is used
57Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection55Forklifts/Aerial LiftsPhotos courtesy of Lifting Technologies
58Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection56Forklifts/Aerial LiftsThe following requirements must be met as well:1. The work platform must be equipped with standard guardrails and must be firmly secured to the lifting carriage or forks.2. The hydraulic system must be designed such that the lift mechanism will not drop faster than 135 feet per minute in the event of a failure in any part of the system.3. The operator must be in the driving seat while workers are on the platform.4. The operator must be in the driving seat while raising or lowering the platform.5. The area between the personnel on the platform and the mast must be guarded to prevent contact with chains or other pinch points.
59Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection57Forklifts/Aerial LiftsPhotos depict hazardous condition
60Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection58Forklifts/Aerial LiftsWhen using extensible and articulating boom platforms a harness shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from the lift. Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.Photo depicts hazardous condition
61Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection59Forklifts/Aerial LiftsWhen working in a straight up and down scissors type lift, a harness/ lanyard is not required.
62Forklifts/Aerial Lifts L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection60Forklifts/Aerial LiftsEmployee was operating an aerial lift, with an extendable boom rotating work platform.The boom was fully extended and the machine apparently ran over some bricks, causing the boom to flex or spring, throwing the employee from the basket.The employee fell 37 feet to a concrete surface.
63General Scaffolding L & M Masonry Fall Protection COMPETENT PERSON SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection61General ScaffoldingCOMPETENT PERSONPerson capable of identifying and having authority to promptly correct hazardsDetermines if it’s safe to work on a scaffold during storms or high windsTrains workers to recognize hazardsSelects qualified workers to conduct work
64General Scaffolding L & M SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection62General ScaffoldingCompetent person inspects scaffolds for visible defects before each shift and after any alterations or unusual occurrences.Defective parts must be immediately repaired or replaced.Photo depicts hazardous condition
65General Scaffolding L & M Masonry Fall Protection 63 SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection63General ScaffoldingPhotos depict hazardous condition
66General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection64General Fall ProtectionGeneral fall protection is required when working above 6 feet in construction. When working on a silo, ensure guardrail chains are closed.
67General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection65General Fall ProtectionWhen masonry work must be done on a roof or other elevated surface, a guardrail system must be installed or a Personal Fall Arrest system must be used above 6 feet.
68General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection66General Fall ProtectionWhen performing overhand bricklaying work, a Controlled Access Zone may be used as a method of fall protection, as long as masons do not reach more than 10 inches below the platform on which they are standing or kneeling. "Overhand bricklaying" is "the process of laying bricks and masonry units such that the surface of the wall to be jointed is on the opposite side of the wall from the mason, requiring the mason to lean over the wall to complete the work. It includes mason tending, maintaining supplies of bricks and mortar and electrical installation incorporated into the brick wall during the overhand bricklaying process."
69General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection67General Fall ProtectionOn a construction site, floor holes greater than 2 inches in any dimension must be covered or guarded. If covered, the cover must be marked as such and secured.Photo depicts hazardous condition
70General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection68General Fall ProtectionThere must be a stairway or ladder at points of access where there is an elevation break of 19 inches or more. At least one point of access must be kept clear.19 inchesBreak in elevation
71General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection69General Fall ProtectionStairways with four or more risers or more than 30 inches high must have a stair rail along each unprotected side or edge and have at least one handrail
72General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection70General Fall ProtectionPhotos depict hazardous condition
73General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection71General Fall ProtectionOnly use pan stairs if filled with filler material at least to the top edge of each pan, has stair rails/ handrails installed and the unprotected sides of landings have a standard 42 inch guardrail system.LandingPanPhoto depicts hazardous condition
74General Fall Protection L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection72General Fall ProtectionStair rails must be able to withstand a force of 200 pounds outward and downward along its entire length.
75Summary L & M Remember, falls may occur: SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection73SummaryRemember, falls may occur:While climbing on or off the scaffoldWorking on unguarded scaffold platformsWhen scaffold platforms or planks failPhotos depict hazardous condition
76Summary L & M Guardrails Install along open sides & ends SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection74SummaryGuardrailsInstall along open sides & endsFront edge of platforms not more than 14 inches from the work, unless using guardrails and/or Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS)Top rails - 38 to 45 inches tallMidrails halfway between toprail and platformToeboards at least 3-1/2 inches highPhoto depictshazardous condition
77Summary L & M You must be trained how to properly use a PFAS SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection75SummaryYou must be trained how to properly use a PFASPFAS include anchorage, lanyard and body harnessCan use PFAS instead of guardrails on some scaffoldsUse PFAS & guardrails on suspension scaffoldsUse PFAS on erectors and dismantlers unless it creates a greater hazard
78Summary L & M Use appropriate scaffold construction methods SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection76SummaryUse appropriate scaffold construction methodsProper scaffold accessAlways have a competent person for the scaffold
79Summary L & M Platforms must: SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection77SummaryPlatforms must:be fully planked or decked with no more than 1 inch gapsbe able to support its weight & 4 times maximum loadbe at least 18 inches wide if used as a walkwayPhoto depicts hazardous condition
80Summary L & M No gaps over 14 inches at front edge of platforms SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection78SummaryNo gaps over 14 inches at front edge of platformsEach abutted end of plank must rest on a separate support surfaceOverlap platforms at least 12 inches over supports, unless restrained to prevent movementPhotos depict hazardous condition
81L & MSUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection79SummaryProvide access when scaffold platforms are more than 2 feet above or below a point of accessPermitted types of access:-Ladders, such as portable, hook-on, attachable, stairway type, and built-ins-Stair towers-Ramps and walkwaysMay use building stairs and come out windowPhoto depicts hazardous condition
82Summary L & M No access by crossbraces SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection80SummaryNo access by crossbracesWhen using ladders, bottom rung no more than 24 inches highCan use some end framesCan access from another scaffold, structure or hoistPhoto depicts hazardous condition
83Summary L & M Masonry Fall Protection SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection81SummaryTrain employees on scaffold hazards and procedures to control the hazards.The training must include:-Nature of electrical, fall, and falling object hazards-How to deal with electrical hazards and fall protection systems-Proper use of the scaffold-Scaffold load capacitiesRetrain as necessary
84REVIEW QUESTIONS True or False? L & M SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection82REVIEW QUESTIONSTrue or False?Erectors & dismantlers must have additional training in safe procedures.Scaffolds must always have mudsills beneath the baseplates.Guardrails must be installed before the scaffold is used by masons/hoddies.Erectors only need to wear a harness if 100% tie-off is feasible.Brickwashers can work with only two planks as a work platform.Answers:1. TRUE2. FALSE3. TRUE4. FALSE5. FALSE
85REVIEW QUESTIONS True or False? L & M SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection83REVIEW QUESTIONSTrue or False?Planks can be nailed or screwed together if 12 inches of overlap is not possible.Scaffolds only one frame high can be climbed without using a ladder.Workers above 10 feet can remove the midrail to accept a mud tub without using other fall protection.Workers do not need fall protection on the walk planks when laying block.Workers can stand on the midrail of a scissors lift if they are tied off.Answers:6. TRUE7. FALSE8. FALSE9. FALSE10. FALSE
86REVIEW QUESTIONS True or False? L & M SUBPARTSMasonry Fall Protection84REVIEW QUESTIONSTrue or False?The Competent Person must be a foreman.You can climb through a window onto the scaffold if you only step up/down 28 inches.Floor holes greater than 2 inches wide must be covered or guarded.Ladders must be tied off at the top only if the scaffold is over 20 feet highScaffold training is only required when you are first hired by your employer.Answers:11. FALSE12. FALSE13. TRUE14. FALSE15. FALSE