Presentation on theme: "East Asia. 2 Relative Location Introduction –East Asia is the most populous region in the world –China is the most populous country, and the oldest continuous."— Presentation transcript:
2 Relative Location
Introduction –East Asia is the most populous region in the world –China is the most populous country, and the oldest continuous national culture –China and Japan have been rivals from time to time –East Asia has experienced colonization, and has seen both internal and international conflict –Japan is extremely wealthy, but poverty may be found in parts of the region –Eastern China is undergoing rapid economic development –East Asia is one of the core areas of the world economy and an emerging center of political power
Regions of China East South central North Northeast Northwest Southwest
“The Heartland” (regions of South central and East) Most populated North North – Cold winters, warm/hot summers – Political and cultural centers South South – More mild climate – Richer farming – Hilly… people packed into farmland in river valleys
South Central Shanghai Guilin
Northeast Manchuria Formerly known as Manchuria Cold, sparsely populated Many natural resources –Oil –Iron –Aluminum –Ore –Coal –Lead and zinc Govt is working to recover these resources more effectively
North “Mongolia” Gobi Desert Hot, hot summers Bitterly cold winters
Northwest “Xinjiang” (sheen jee ahng) Desert basin, surrounded by mountains Important oil producer Wheat and cotton can grow here Railroads have opened up the area Many non Chinese live in this area
Southwest “Xizang” (shee dzahng) aka “Tibet” Sits among several mountain ranges, including the Himalayas Mostly barren, but some farming is possible China took over in 1950 and has worked to develop hydroelectric power since
Rivers of China Yellow River Huang He or Yellow River Yangtze River Yangzi or Yangtze River Pearl River Guangzhou or Pearl River
Yellow River LOESS Carries very fertile, yellow-brown soil called LOESS Causes frequent flood and destruction… but leaves silt! !!
Yangtze River Carries much of China’s trade At mouth of the river is Shanghai Hydro electric power… – Three Gorges Dam
Pearl River Actually a system of rivers Flows through southern China to the port of Guangzhou (a major port city)
The People 95% of people in China are ethnically Han Minorities: Tibetans, Tajiks, and Mongols Many different dialects of the Chinese language, but the official language is Mandarin
Review: Explain how the physical geography of China has contributed to the lack of ethnic diversity within the country. Explain how the physical geography of China has contributed to the lack of ethnic diversity within the country.
Oracle Bones – Priests would write questions from the rulers on sheep or goat bones. The bones were heated and cracked. The priests would then interpret the cracks. These interpretations were the wishes of the gods.
The Mandate of Heaven is based on four principles: 1.The right to rule is granted by Heaven. 2.There is only one Heaven therefore there can be only one ruler. 3.The right to rule is based on the virtue of the ruler. 4.The right to rule is not limited to one dynasty. Here are some of the ways these principles converted into action and justification: – It gives the ruler prestige and religious importance. – It gives the ruler supreme power. quickly – It allows a new ruler to gain power quickly if the people believe he has the 'Mandate of Heaven'. 'Mandate of Heaven'. – A ruler's power must be kept in check by virtue. Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion – The Mandate of Heaven justifies rebellion as long as the rebellion is successful. Simply because it was successful, obviously then, the new ruler had to have had a Mandate from Heaven.
Three philosophies develop in this time period… Confucianism Confucianism Daoism Daoism Legalism Legalism These have a huge impact on social and political culture in China!!! ben_cooke/3-chinese-belief- systems
Chinese Philosophies Confucianism,Daoism, Legalism and Buddhism Buddhism
Kong Fuzi lived BCE Kong Fuzi lived BCE A time of warfare and unrest A time of warfare and unrest Focus: The Importance of How People Relate to One Another Focus: The Importance of How People Relate to One Another Education overcomes ignorance Education overcomes ignorance People are good People are good Ideal ruler is an educated, moral person who guides society by good example. Ideal ruler is an educated, moral person who guides society by good example.
Five Relationships Confucianism stresses loyalty, courtesy, hard work, and service. In most of the relationships, the inferior person would eventually become the superior and would be responsible for another inferior, so education held a important place in society. Confucianism stresses loyalty, courtesy, hard work, and service. In most of the relationships, the inferior person would eventually become the superior and would be responsible for another inferior, so education held a important place in society. – Ruler to subject – Father to son – Husband to wife – Older brother to younger brother (The above are unequal relationships) – Friend to Friend (based on love and mutual respect)
Filial Piety – Duties and obligations to ancestors and paren t s Mulan- Mulan- – Scene #1- – Scene #2-
Duty is the path to harmony
Only virtue gives one the right to rule, not heredity.
Virtue can be acquired through education.
Daoism Lao Tzu lived around 604 BCE. Little known. Lao Tzu lived around 604 BCE. Little known. “the way” is the life force of all natural things. “the way” is the life force of all natural things. Yin and Yang are complementary principles. Yin and Yang are complementary principles. Against all organizations, including formal education. Against all organizations, including formal education. Least government is best. Ideal ruler doesn’t govern. Least government is best. Ideal ruler doesn’t govern. Harmony created if people follow the dao. Harmony created if people follow the dao. Nonaction, simplicity, humility, quiet, plainness, and peace emphasized. Nonaction, simplicity, humility, quiet, plainness, and peace emphasized.
Don’t interfere with the affairs of others Don’t interfere with the affairs of others (individuals or states)
Those who know, do not speak of it. Those who speak of it do not know it.
Water seems weak, always seeks the easiest way, always flows downhill, yet will wear away stone.
Daoism stresses harmony with nature, Confucianism stresses harmony between people.
Legalism Attributed to HanFeizi ( BCE) Attributed to HanFeizi ( BCE) Persecuted Confucian scholars and gave philosophy a bad name Persecuted Confucian scholars and gave philosophy a bad name People are naturally evil. People are naturally evil. They are motivated by fear and greed. They are motivated by fear and greed. Punishment/Reward is necessary to control behavior. Punishment/Reward is necessary to control behavior. Severe punishment is necessary to prevent undesirable behavior. (Death penalty) Severe punishment is necessary to prevent undesirable behavior. (Death penalty)
Legalism (continued) There is no absolute right or wrong. Laws replace morality. There is no absolute right or wrong. Laws replace morality. Government should be based on world as it exists. (Reject tradition and supernatural) Government should be based on world as it exists. (Reject tradition and supernatural) Good ruler maintains and expands borders. He uses laws, rewards and punishments Good ruler maintains and expands borders. He uses laws, rewards and punishments
Strength, not goodness is important
Buddhism Spread from India in 1 st Century CE Not concerned with governing but with individual behavior. Controls all aspects of daily life A Buddhist doesn’t eat meat, kill, believes in rebirth, and believes that how a person lives affects his future existence.
May all that have life be delivered from suffering" -Gautama Buddha
Buddhism (continued) Every living thing is part of a universal spirit. A person who practices good moral conduct, discipline and meditation moves upward to “nirvana”, which ends the painful rebirths. Eightfold Path/Four Noble Truths
Over time, Buddhist beliefs blended with Chinese culture. 1. Nirvana became place similar to the western concept of heaven 2. Confucian ideas of proper behavior and respect for family and ancestors 3. Daoism importance of nature Buddhism is the only religion in China. Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism are all philosophies.
The Great Wall of China
Why??? Built Terra Cotta Army-
They developed the idea that the government should be run by the most talented and educated men. 1. Civil Service Exam – Test based upon Confucian ideas, Chinese laws, history and traditions to determine governmental positions. 2. Candidates were chosen by achievement. 2. Candidates were chosen by achievement. 3. Governmental officials shared the same values and traditions. 3. Governmental officials shared the same values and traditions.
A lot of changes occur at the end of the 19 th century…
In 1911, China was declared a republic. However, there was not a well organized government. The country spiraled into a civil war with many different groups claimed the right to rule China.
The government took steps to limit population growth. -Delayed marriage until mid to late 20’s -One child policy -Governmental reward system – Promotions, improved housing and wages increases Multiple children -Governmental punishments -Fines, reduced rations, not eligible for promotions Urban areas today are relaxing the policy TO DEAL WITH THE MASSIVE & RAPIDLY GROWING POPULATION
Affect of the One Child Policy The authorities also pledged to improve protection of baby girls, saying that people who kill, abandon or injure infant girls or ill-treat their mothers, should be severely punished. Medical institutions that use ultra- sound technology and abortion medicines will be more closely supervised, according to the statement. China's gender ratio for newborn babies in 2005 was 118 boys for 100 girls, compared with 110:100 in In some regions, the figure has reached 130 newborn boys for every 100 girls. The decision said the gender-ratio imbalance which has been developing for some time amounts to "a hidden danger" for the society that will "affect social stability.“ In an attempt to halt the growing imbalance, China launched a "care for girls" campaign nationwide in 2000 to promote equality between men and women. The government has also offered cash incentives to girl-only families in the countryside. The authorities said such programs will continue to fight discrimination against girls and to adopt more policies to ensure the healthy growth of girls.
China's Flag China's national flag was adopted in September, This flag was first flown in Tiananmen Square on October 1, the day of the founding of the People's Republic of China. The rectangular flag has a red field with five golden- yellow stars (each with five points) in the upper left corner. The star on the left is larger than the other four. The red color of the flag symbolizes revolution. The large star symbolizes the Communist Party (which rules China) and the smaller stars represent the people of China.