Presentation on theme: "The Gilded Age and Progressive Era"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Gilded Age and Progressive Era Hannah Rashdan, Darby Lawrence, Ramsey Hashem, Drake Scott
2 “It is a time when one's spirit is subdued and sad, one knows not why; when the past seems a storm-swept desolation, life a vanity and a burden, and the future but a way to death.”-Mark Twain, 1873
3 The Forgettable Presidents Ulysses S. Grant18th PresidentRepublicanFormer Civil War commander for the UnionWar Heroics made him popular
4 The Railroad takes hold Transcontinental railroad commences building in 1865The Union Pacific Railroad began building in 1865westward from Omaha, Nebraskawhen Indians protested, they were killed or pushed out of landmany people lost lives from working on the railsThe Central Pacific Railroadeastward from Sacramento to Sierra, NevadaMany Chinese laborers worked relentlessly and lost their lives on the rails with minimalistic payThe Northern Pacific RailroadNew Orleans to San Francisco
5 The Railroad takes hold Cornelius VanderbiltWelded together and expanded the older eastern networksoffered superior railway service at lower ratesamassed a fortune of $100 millionPopularized the steel railreplaced the old iron tracks of the New York Central with tougher metalsafer and more economical
6 The Railroad takes hold BenefitsStimulated growth of other industries (steel, iron, coal, lumber, glass)Helped cities growHelped increase westward expansion of AmericaStandard time zones were created to get everyone on correct timeWelded the West Coast more firmly to the unionFacilitated a flourishing trade with AsiaCorruptionExercised more direct control over the lifes of more people than did the presidentAbsolute disregard for the public interestBribed judges and legislatures for their own benefitsCharged much higher rates to western farmersCredit Mobilier Scandal 1868Union PacificBribed members of CongressRepresented corruption of period
7 The Railroad takes hold Effects on the American lifestyleFor the first time, a sprawling nation became united in a physical senseCreated and enormous domestic market for American raw materials and manufactured goodsbeckoned to foreign and domestic investorsSpurred the amazing industrialization of the post- Civil War yearsopened up fresh markets for manufactured goods and sped raw materials to factoriesStimulated mining and agriculture, especially in the WestPlayed a leading role in the great cityward movement of the last decades of the 1800sThe maker of millionairesa raw new aristocracy replaced the old southern “lords of the lash”
8 Corruption leads to depression Credit mobilier scandal (1872)the Union Pacific Railroad formed the Credit mobilier construction company and hired themselves at inflated pricesdistributed shares to key congressmenhurt President Grant because of his association with itPanic of 1873:Overreaching promoters created too many businesses that the existing markets could bearBankers made too many imprudent loans to finance
9 Monopolists Emerge John D Rockefeller: Founded the Standard Oil Co. 1870gained a monopoly in the oil industry by buying rival refineries and developing companies for distributing and marketing its products around the globehad little mercy for competitorsused whatever means necessary to beat competitionUsed trusts
10 Monopolists Emerge Andrew Carnegie: Founded the Carnegie Steel Company as steel became crucial in the developing technologies (Railroads, factories, etc)Monopolized the steel industryCarnegie built plants around the country,using technology and methods that made manufacturing steel easier,faster and more productivelater became a philanthropist and donated much of his money to museums and libraries
11 Monopolists Emerge JP Morgan: an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company
12 Monopolists Emerge Vertical Integration A process in which a company combines all phases of manufacturing into one organization. (Ex. coal and iron mines, ore freighters, rr lines)Pioneered by Andrew CarnegieHorizontal ConsolidationA process in which a company buys out or merges with all competing companies (JP Morgan bought out Carnegie steel and other companies)
13 Monopolists Emerge Trusts A group of separate companies placed under the control of a single managing boardCritics called these practices unfair and the business leaders “Robber Barons”
14 The Era of Good Stealings Black Friday (September 24, 1869)Two corrupt industrialists, Fisk and Gould, bid the price of gold skyward until businesspeople became bankruptGrant worked with the two"Boss" TweedUsed bribery, graft, and fraudulent elections to earn money and power
15 The Forgettable Presidents Rutherford B. Hayes19th PresidentRepublicanEnded reconstruction in the first year of office by withdrawing federal troops from the SouthMarked the beginning of the Gilded Age
16 Labor UnionsThe purpose of a labor union was “strength in numbers.” Attempted to gain better working conditions and payindividual workers were powerless to battle single-handedly against giant industriesmostly by laborers and NOT the middle classthe middle class grew deaf to the outcry of the worker as they got annoyed
17 Labor Unions The National Labor Union (1866) included skilled, unskilled, and farmersexcluded Chinese and nominal effort to include women and blackswon 8 hour workday for government workersColored National Labor Unionorganized by black workersRacism prevented unions from working togetherThe Knights of Labor (1869)Was the first union to accept workers of all races and gender, skilled and unskilled workersCampaigned for economic and social reformPushed for 8 hour workday, equal pay for womenHaymarket Square (1886)Chicago police kill/injur several dozen strikersThe Knights of Labor began to be associated with anarchists
18 Labor Unions The American Federation of Labor (1886) lead by Samuel Gomperscomposed of skilled craftsmenBy 1900 attitudes toward labor began to changethe public began to concede the right of workers to organize, to bargain collectively, and to strike
19 Labor Strikes The Great Strike (1877) in 1873, companies had reduced the pay of railroad workers by ten percent.In 1877 they announced another ten percent reduction in the workers' pay, and also that railroad employees would be required to use company hotels when away from home, which meant a further reduction in real wages. On top of this, they decided to reduce the work-force - which meant unemployment for some and intensified labor for those remaining.The Haymarket Riot (1886)Knights of Labor strike in support of the eight-hour day at McCormick Reaper Manufacturing Companyit was assumed that an anarchist threw the bomb and raids were conducted on all known radical groups, including trade union leaders- sentenced to execution
20 Labor Strikes Homestead Strike (1892) 5,000 steelworkers struck Andrew Carnegie's steel plant near Pittsburg PA.A pitched battle erupted between the strikers and Pinkertons hired by plant manager Henry Clay Frick who had been hired to protect the strikebreakers.7,000 state troopers were sent in by Governor Pattison; the steel mill was reopened by strikebreakersPullman Strike (1894)Eugene Debs , leader of the American Railway Union , led the strike by refusing to handle railroads using Pullman cars, encouraging other unions to join.The strike was ended by a court injunction, based on the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, after which President Cleveland sent in 10,000 federal troops (because of "interference" with the US mail), who along with 2,000 state troops smashed the ARU
21 Labor Strikes & the Supreme Court Major supreme court decision:In re Debs (1895)Debs’ writ of habeas corpus to the Supreme Court was denied on the basis of a broad interpretation of the commerce clause and the federal government’s obligation to deliver the mail
22 The Forgettable Presidents James GarfieldMarch 1881-September 188120th PresidentRepublicanAssassinated after less than 4 months
23 American lifestyles America move to the city cities grew up and out-skyscrapersAmericans were becoming commuters- needed transportation to and fro workAmericans created a huge mass of wasteCriminals flourishcities represented “the best and the worst combined”Sums:filthy, especially after the perfection of the “dumbbell” tenementarchitectural plan that minimized the amount of air and lightthose in cities generally live together by ethnicity
24 American lifestyle Women group most profoundly affected by new industrial ageworked “women jobs”; began working into industry by recent inventionstypewriter, telephone switchboardearned less than menworking for middle-class women meant delayed marriages and smaller familiesmost women worked because of economic necessityAccentuated class divisions
25 Lifestyles in the Factories The concept of time was revolutionized as now people follow the works hours, not the clock of naturelong, hard, arduous hoursmany died from the terrible conditions of the factories
26 The Forgettable Presidents Chester A. Arthur21st PresidentRepublicanTook office after Garfield’s assassinationPushed for intervention in Latin America
27 Civil Service Reform Hurts Pendleton Act of 1883:"the Magna Carta of civil service reform"made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegalEstablished the Civil Service CommissionMake appointments to federal jobs on basis of competitive examsThis hurt because:A new breed of "boss" emerged, although less skilledDrove politicians into "marriages" with big businesses, instead of temporary contracts
28 Old Immigrants Immigrants before 1880 Mainly from the British Isles and Western Europe (Germany, scandinavia, etc)Fair skinned, anglo saxonprotestanthigh literacyfit easily into representative government because of their previous governments
29 New Immigrants Immigrants after 1880 Mainly from southern and eastern EuropeItalians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, Polesorthodox/Jewish; faced religious persecutionprevious country of origin had little history of a democracypeople had lived in despotismilliteratemoved mainly to citieshigh birth rate; brought culture with them“America fever” captures Europethe population of the old world increased exponentially with the introduction of the potato.America was seen as the land of opprotunity and freedom for religionsavage persecution of Jews in EuropeOnce in the United States, many immigrants lived and worked in the most strenuous jobsespecially in “sweatshops”
30 New Immigrants Chinese Major influx of chinese immigrants, esp fromViewed as cheap, efficient and expendable laborLived in very inclusive communities, faced a lot of racismChinese Exclusion Act of 1882:prohibit further chinese immigrantsrepresents the racism the Americans viewed Chinese with and the growing fear of immigrants
31 New Immigrants Italians Huge influx from 1880-1920 Came from the more poorer areas of Italy and intended to bring money back to Italy from America (half of them did)clustered in tight knit communitiesmainly Industrial laborersremained in blue collar jobs
32 Immigrant-phobia Nativism: (“Know-Nothings” revived) Became exceptionally profound in the 1880sViewed the new immigrants as religiously exotic hordes and gave them rude receptionsseen as “inferior”- racism a major playerBlamed immigrants for the degradation of urban governmentCreated the American Protective Association 1887 (APA)- urged voting against roman catholic candidatesCongress passes first restrictions against inpouring immigrants1882, prevented paupers, criminals, and convicts from enteringexpanded later to include the “undesirables” (prostitutes, polygamists, alcoholics, etc)
33 The Forgettable Presidents Grover Cleveland22nd PresidentDemocratStood for hard work and civil serviceOpposed high tariffs and free silver
34 Railroads influencePresident Cleaveland in 1887 allowed for land grants to the railroadsHuge criticism as it was seen as “giveaway” of a birthright to greed corporationsgovernment received big benefitslong term preferntial rates for postal service and military trafficgranting land was a “cheap” way to subsidize a transportation system (avoided new taxes for direct cash grants)Americans were initially slow to combat the economic injusticededicated to free enterprise and the principle that competition is the soul of trade, they cherished the tradition“American Dream”- anyone can become a millionaireDepression of 1870s force farmers to protest against railroads
35 Railroads influence Stopping the railroad corruption: Major supreme court decision:Wabash Case (1886)The decision of the Illinois Court was reversed and the decreed that individual states had no power to regulate interstate commerce act- only the federal government can regulatelead to the passage of the Interstate Commerce Actprohibited rebates and pools and required the railroads to publish their rates openlyforbade unfair discrimination against shippersset up the Interstate Commerce Commissionmade to administer and enforce this new legislation***First large-scale attempt by Washington to regulate business in the interest of society at large***
36 Prevailing ideologies Many during this time believed in the “survival-of-the-fittest” theories of Charles Darwinthis concluded that “millionaires are a product of natural selection”invoked contempt for the poor, hence those who stayed poor must be lazy and lacking in enterpriseThe Gospel of Wealthwritten by Andrew Carnegie in 1889he stated that the wealthy, entrusted with society’s riches, had to prove themselves morally responsible
37 The Forgettable Presidents Benjamin Harrison23rd PresidentGrandson of William Henry HarrisonRepublicanPresident during first billion dollar congress
38 Graft Continues The Billion Dollar Congress: Lead by Thomas Reed, HOR speakerPassed the McKinley Tariff Act of 1890raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competitionhelped big industrialists, not the people
39 Attempts to stop monopoly Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890Law outlawing a combination of companies that restrained interstate trade or commerce; important to prevent monopolies; forbade trustsDid not make any distinction between “good” trusts and “bad” trustsbigness not badness, was the sinNot initially enforced properly.Proved highly ineffectivetoo many legal loopholes and no “teeth”Major supreme court decisionUS v. EC Knight Co. (1895)The E.C. Knight Company was a combination controlling over 98 percent of the sugar-refining businessThe court found the Sherman Anti trust act constitutional but said it did not apply to manufacturing.The effect of this decision was to seriously impair enforcement of the anti-trust laws and put most monopolies beyond the reach of federal control.
40 The Forgettable Presidents Grover Cleveland (again!)24th PresidentDemocratOnly president to serve two non-consecutive termsVery Noble and HonestIntervened with Pullman Strike to keep railroads moving
41 Hawaii IssuesMany farmers from the United States moved to Hawaii to plant sugarJanuary 17, US sugar planters revolt, overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in coup d’etat, led by Sanford DoleAt the time, US had Pearl Harbor Naval Base, also had high sugar imports from HawaiiGrover Cleveland sent a US minister to Hawaii to restore the Queen under Hawaii’s 1887 constitution but Dole refused to give up seatWilliam McKinley negotiated a treaty with Republic of Hawaii in 1897Pearl Harbor played a big part in the Spanish American WarHawaii was annexed in 1898, Hawaiians got US citizenship
42 The Gilded Age Presidents William McKinley25th PresidentRepublicanEnsured Gold StandardPresident during Spanish-American WarAssassinated, Teddy Roosevelt took overDeath marked end of the Gilded Age
43 The Spanish- American War Started in Cuban struggle for independence in Spain, 1895Yellow Journalism played a big role in generating US sympathy for Cuban rebelsMaine Explosion on Feb 15, US suspected Spain of doing it, caused tensionUS demanded Cuba’s independence, withdrawal of Spain and US wasn’t interested in annexationSpain declared war on April 24, US declared war on 25thGeorge Dewey led US navy into Manila Bay in Philippines, destroyed Spanish fleetUS “rough riders” including Teddy Roosevelt foughtSantiago, Cuba surrendered on July 17thTreaty of Paris signed on December 10, 1898: Spain had no claim to Cuba, US got Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines all for $20 millionEnded expansionism of SpainUS became a world power, led to arguments over what to do with Philippines and debate over expansionism
44 Postwar ConflictsIn 1899, Aguinaldo led a Filipino rebellion against the United States600,000 Filipinos diedUS broke up rebellion in 1901US appeared to be no less oppressive than SpanishSpanish-American War: 10 weeks, 400 deaths. Philippine-American War: 3 years, 4,000 Americans diedA lot of anti-imperialist views, US was meant to be freeing Cuba, not controlling itGeneral public supported McKinley’s expansionism thoughPlatt Amendment in US troops out of Cuba by 1902
45 Boxer RebellionChina was occupied by several different nations, “spheres of influence”Sec. of State John Hay suggested Open Door PolicyChinese nationalists attacked Western Occupants in China in 1900, known as the “Boxers”Rebels were subdued, China was forced to pay $330 million to the USMarked the first time US invaded without goals of getting territory
46 The Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt26th PresidentRepublicanPart of Rough Riders during Spanish-American WarHay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty in US got control of Panama Canal from PanamaRoosevelt Corollary- Extended Monroe Doctrine, US would be police of Western Hemisphere, would intervene in Latin America in the event of wrongdoingWon Nobel Prize in 1906 for negotiating end to Russo-Japanese WarSent Great White Fleet around world in 1907 to show power
47 President RooseveltRoosevelt Corollary-Germany and Britain sent ships to blockade Venezuela- roosevelt felt that they were offensive and we needed to help defend Venezuela- made the us the police of Latin Americathe great white fleet-believed that a strong navy was crucial for a strong defence-convinced congress to add battleships and in 1907 he proposed sending them out and in 1909 they traveled around the world to show their power.
48 Russo- Japanese WarWar broke out in 1904, Russia and Japan fought over Manchuria and KoreaTeddy Roosevelt offered to mediate peace processTwo sides met with TR at Portsmouth, NH, Treaty of Portsmouth was arranged, Manchuria returned to ChinaRoosevelt got Nobel Peace Prize for efforts- first president to win itRussia unhappy, felt like the US robbed them of victoryJapan felt it hadn’t been awarded enough, led to anti-US sentiment in JapanCaused tense relations with Japan, Japan was a new world powerJapanese immigrants faced with discriminationGentleman’s agreement of US would end separate schooling if Japan stopped immigrationRoosevelt sent Great White Fleet to show power1908- Root-Takahira agreement- respect between US and JapanUS lost all isolationist appearances
49 DarwinismCharles Darwin On the Origin of Species, generated high controversy on its publicationset forth the “survival of the fittest”cast doubt on the Bibleconservatives condemned the Darwiniansmodernists refuse to accept the Bible in its entirety
50 Halting Industrialists’ Powers Major Supreme Court decision:Northern Securities Company v. United States (1904)The Supreme Court ruled that a holding company formed solely to eliminate competition between the 2 railroads was in violation of the anti-trust laws because it unreasonably restrained commerce.The federal government now had the authority to regulate any conspiracy which sought to eliminate competition between otherwise competitive railroads.The government’s policy of trust busting helped restore competition in the American economyMuller v. Oregon (1908)Protective legislation limiting the hours women could workLater became a NEGATIVE when it was used to discriminate against women in the workplace
51 The Progressive Presidents William Howard Taft27th PresidentRepublicanProminent Trust BusterUsed Dollar Diplomacy- invest money in Latin America and East Asia to boost US political interests abroadBecame Chief Justice after Presidency
52 The Progressive Presidents Woodrow Wilson28th PresidentDemocratPassed Federal Reserve ActPassed Clayton Antitrust ActPresident during WWI
53 MinoritiesAfrican-Americans faced unemployment, eviction, and physical harm when they tried to assert their rights, esp. in Democratic SouthJim Crow Laws (1890's)Systematic state-level legal codes of segregationEnacted literacy requirements, voter registration and poll taxes
54 Minorities Major supreme court decisions: Plessy v Ferguson (1896) "separate but equal" was constitutional under the 14th amendment of 'equal protection'U.S. v Wong Kim Ark (1898)Guarantee citizenship to all persons born in the U.S."Birthright Citizenship", specifically helped Chinese
55 Platt AmendmentThe Platt Amendment made the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba at the end of the Spanish-American war and defined the terms of Cuban-U.S relations.Terms of AmendmentCuba could not make a treaty with other countriesCuba had to allow the U.S the ability to lease naval stations and portsCuba’s depts had to stay lowU.S had the right to intervene and protect Cuba
56 16th AmendmentThe 16th amendment is an important amendment that allows the federal United States government to collect an income tax from all Americans.These taxes then went to being spent on the military, building roads and bridges, and enforcing our laws.
57 17th AmendmentThe 17th amendment declared that 2 U.S senators will be provided by each state by popular vote and that each senator would serve a term of 6 years.
58 The JungleThe Jungle was written by Upton Sinclair and was published February 26, The novel portrayed the lives of immigrants in the U.S in Chicago and similar industrialized cities. The book was most known for its exposure of health violations and unsanitary practices in the American meatpacking industry.
59 The Influence of Sea Power Upon History The Influence of Sea Power was written by Alfred Thayer Mahan and published sometime in the year of The book concentrated highly on the history of naval warfare and its role during the 17th and 18th centuries. It also discusses the factors needed to support and achieve sea power dominance with emphasis on having the largest and most powerful fleet.
60 Yellow JournalismYellow journalism or the yellow press is a type of journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers. The techniques used may include exaggerations of news events or sensationalism.The term originated during the American Gilded Age of the late nineteenth century with the circulation battles between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. The battle peaked from 1895 to about Both papers were accused by critics of sensationalizing the news in order to drive up circulation, although the newspapers did serious reporting as well.
61 Thomas EdisonThomas Edison was the inventor of many things during this period including the photograph and the light bulb. He invented the photograph December 6th in 1877 when he was 30 years old. The light bulb was invented October 21st in He later then worked towards making electricity available to the general public and even started his own electricity company.
62 Telephone29 year old Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone February 14th in The telephone presented a way of communicating to others over thousands of miles away and the opportunity of connecting with others worldwide and a cheaper way to send messages.