2The New South: Goals Small farms Thriving industries Bustling cities To become reality, the “New South” must copy the NorthRe-establishment of Southern Democratic governments = “Solid South”
3“The New South”New South: A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s…Industry!Henry W. Grady: first to use the phrase… editor/part owner of the Atlanta Constitution (Daily Journal)Henry W. GradyThe international Cotton Exposition
4The International Cotton Exposition 1881, part of New South Program, Henry Grady promoted Georgia's first International Cotton ExpositionExposition attracted 200,000 paid visitors2 1/2 months longShowed rest of US Georgia was ready for more industry
5New South Creed The “New South Creed” – Industrialize the South – Diversify agriculture– "out-Yankee the Yankees.” - Economic cooperation with the North-- “improved” race relations - solidify segregation“New South Creed” did not fit with “Lost Cause”– Was it better for South to look forward or backward?– Many southern leaders tried to do a little of both: Keep some old -- develop some new
6Industrialization in the New South Southern industries expanded after Reconstruction– Textiles– Tobacco– Timber– Iron and Steel• 1890, Southern steel industry produced 20% of nation’s supply– RailroadsBetween , RR miles more than doubled in the South
7Southern IndustryDespite progress, Southern industry never equaled the NorthDeveloped mainly raw materials, not finished productsRaw material economy paid low wagesMuch of the capital came from the North = profits left the South
8Southern Industrial Labor High % of Southern factory workers - women - sometimes entire familiesMill towns -- rigidly controlledHours long -- wages lowProtests & Union organization suppressedCompany stores sold goods at inflated pricesBlacks excluded from many factory positionsHired only for the least desirable, lowest-paid positions.• Convict-lease system - chain gangs (free labor)• Child Labor
13The Road to a New South Tremendous growth in the tobacco industry Richmond, VAPart of diversification of cash crops
14The New South: Agricultural Workforce Tenant (renters) farming emerged:Sharecropping - tenants (renters) paid a portion of their rent with crop surpluscrop lien system - loan against the value of the land
16The New South: Policitcally “Redeemers” or “Bourbons”Sought return of Democratic Party control of local and state government“Solid South” -- desire for South to be controlled by Democratic Party“laissez-faire”minimal government oversight of businessesRejected -- resisted federal government invervention in State political matters
21“Jim Crow” lawsDisfranchisement: poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and residency requirements.Segregation in public accommodations (schools, restaurants, train cars, restrooms)
22Civil Rights Cases of 1883Several cases involving application of federal Civil Rights Act of 1875African-American citizens protested:exclusion from a hotel dining room in Topeka, Kansasfrom the opera in New York Cityfrom the better seats of a San Francisco theaterfrom a car set aside for ladies on a trainPresented to the Supreme Court during the term
23Civil Rights Cases of 1883 8-1 decision Civil Rights Act of 1875 = unconstitutional.14th amendment only applied to federal government NOT statesCongress can’t legislate in matters of racial discrimination in the private sectorlimiting of rights = “ordinary civil injur[ies]” NOT badges of slavery.Justice Harlan, dissented “The Constitution is color-blind: it neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.”
24Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Originated in Louisiana in 1890s Upheld segregation of public accomodationsLegal as long as facilities were “separate but equal”Ruling justified racial segregation (particularly in states) for 50 yearsThe Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme CourtThe Plessy v. FergusonSupreme Court
25Jim Crow Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” Legitimized pattern for Jim Crow laws for next 60 years.Issue of segregation did not gain national prominence again until 1950s.
26Jim Crow laws“Jim Crow” - term used for practices and rules that discriminated along color lines.System of segregationJim Crow = stage name of a white minstrel (comedian) who performed in Black face makeup in the late 1800s.Caricatured blacks.Came to stand for all segregation laws that were instituted in the South after the Civil War.
28Jim Crow Newspaper Handbill "Jim Crow" became a synonym for racial segregation
29Booker T. WashingtonBorn as a slave (Emancipation Proclamation set him free.)Young boy – got up at 4a.m. to work in salt mines – went to school in the p.m.Age of 22 – became an instructor at Hampton Institute (a school for black students); later became the principal.Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (The Tuskegee Institute was the training ground for the Tuskegee Airmen, the famous all-black flying squadron of World War II.)Recognized as the nation's foremost black educator.
30Booker T. WashingtonCalled for whites to take initiative in improving social and economic relations between the races.Atlanta Compromise: Responsibility and importance of vocational education. Not immediate social equality.Economic independence would eventually lead to social equality.