Presentation on theme: "The New South 1865-1900. The New South: Goals Small farms Thriving industries Bustling cities To become reality, the “New South” must copy the North Re-establishment."— Presentation transcript:
The New South
The New South: Goals Small farms Thriving industries Bustling cities To become reality, the “New South” must copy the North Re-establishment of Southern Democratic governments = “Solid South”
“The New South” Industry New South: A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s…Industry! New South Henry W. Grady Henry W. Grady: first to use the phrase… editor/part owner of the Atlanta Constitution (Daily Journal) Henry W. Grady The international Cotton Exposition
The International Cotton Exposition 1881, part of New South Program, Henry Grady promoted Georgia's first International Cotton Exposition Exposition attracted 200,000 paid visitors 2 1/2 months long Showed rest of US Georgia was ready for more industry
New South Creed The “New South Creed” – Industrialize the South – Diversify agriculture – "out-Yankee the Yankees.” - Economic cooperation with the North -- “improved” race relations - solidify segregation “New South Creed” did not fit with “Lost Cause” – Was it better for South to look forward or backward? – Many southern leaders tried to do a little of both: Keep some old -- develop some new
Industrialization in the New South Southern industries expanded after Reconstruction – Textiles – Tobacco – Timber – Iron and Steel 1890, Southern steel industry produced 20% of nation’s supply – Railroads Between , RR miles more than doubled in the South
Southern Industry Despite progress, Southern industry never equaled the North Developed mainly raw materials, not finished products Raw material economy paid low wages Much of the capital came from the North = profits left the South
Southern Industrial Labor High % of Southern factory workers - women - sometimes entire families Mill towns -- rigidly controlled Hours long -- wages low Protests & Union organization suppressed Company stores sold goods at inflated prices Blacks excluded from many factory positions Hired only for the least desirable, lowest-paid positions. Convict-lease system - chain gangs (free labor) Child Labor
Cotton Manufacturing Moves South, 1880–1980
Child Labor in the Industrial South
Family Labor in the South
The Road to a New South Tremendous growth in the tobacco industry Tremendous growth in the tobacco industry Richmond, VA Richmond, VA Part of diversification of cash crops Part of diversification of cash crops
The New South: Agricultural Workforce Tenant (renters) farming emerged: Tenant (renters) farming emerged: Sharecropping - tenants (renters) paid a portion of their rent with crop surplus Sharecropping - tenants (renters) paid a portion of their rent with crop surplus crop lien system - loan against the value of the land crop lien system - loan against the value of the land
New South Industry
The New South: Policitcally “Redeemers” or “Bourbons” Sought return of Democratic Party control of local and state government “Solid South” -- desire for South to be controlled by Democratic Party “laissez-faire” minimal government oversight of businesses Rejected -- resisted federal government invervention in State political matters
The Solid South:
Solid South: Thomas Nast (cartoonist)
Harper’s Weekly Cartoon: The KKK
“Jim Crow” laws Disfranchisement: poll taxes, grandfather clauses, literacy tests, and residency requirements. Segregation in public accommodations (schools, restaurants, train cars, restrooms)
Civil Rights Cases of 1883 Several cases involving application of federal Civil Rights Act of 1875 African-American citizens protested: exclusion from a hotel dining room in Topeka, Kansas from the opera in New York City from the better seats of a San Francisco theater from a car set aside for ladies on a train Presented to the Supreme Court during the term
Civil Rights Cases of decision Civil Rights Act of 1875 = unconstitutional. 14th amendment only applied to federal government NOT states Congress can’t legislate in matters of racial discrimination in the private sector limiting of rights = “ordinary civil injur[ies]” NOT badges of slavery. Justice Harlan, dissented “The Constitution is color-blind: it neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens.”
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court Originated in Louisiana in 1890s Upheld segregation of public accomodations Legal as long as facilities were “separate but equal” Ruling justified racial segregation (particularly in states) for 50 years The Plessy v. Ferguson Supreme Court
Jim Crow Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” Legitimized pattern for Jim Crow laws for next 60 years. Issue of segregation did not gain national prominence again until 1950s.
Jim Crow laws “Jim Crow” - term used for practices and rules that discriminated along color lines. System of segregation Jim Crow = stage name of a white minstrel (comedian) who performed in Black face makeup in the late 1800s. Caricatured blacks. Came to stand for all segregation laws that were instituted in the South after the Civil War.
Disfranchisement Cartoon: Literacy Test
Jim Crow Newspaper Handbill
Booker T. Washington Born as a slave (Emancipation Proclamation set him free.) Young boy – got up at 4a.m. to work in salt mines – went to school in the p.m. Age of 22 – became an instructor at Hampton Institute (a school for black students); later became the principal Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama (The Tuskegee Institute was the training ground for the Tuskegee Airmen, the famous all-black flying squadron of World War II.) Recognized as the nation's foremost black educator.
Booker T. Washington Called for whites to take initiative in improving social and economic relations between the races. Atlanta Compromise: Responsibility and importance of vocational education. Not immediate social equality. Economic independence would eventually lead to social equality.