If the clause comes at the end of the sentence, do nothing. If the clause comes in the middle of the sentence, commas need to be before it and after it. If the clause comes at the beginning of the sentence, put a comma after it.
So… Find the adverb clauses below and what they modify. What is the lead off word. Although Roxie drives me nuts, she is very cute. She often jumps whenever any movement occurs. Sitting in my chair, if I make any quick movement, she will jump in fright.
1.As we returned to the dressing room, the whole atmosphere seemed to be pervaded by defeat. 2.All our hopes and dreams were capsized when we learned that we would not be able to attend the festival. 3.American farmers continue to produce more food, even though the number of people working on them has decreased. Shostak, Jerome. Sadlier-Oxford Vocabulary Workshop, Level B. New York: William H Sadlier, Inc., 2002.
4. The students, as the year’s end approached, were becoming giddy. 5. The students will, thankfully, go out to recess as long as the weather is good. 6. They need to be outdoors in order that their excess energy gets spent before English and math.
The main clause goes on top; the adverb clause goes on the bottom. The subordinating conjunction (lead off word) goes on a dotted line from verb to verb.