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Separating Words and Groups of Words. Before We Begin…  The comma is the most frequently used punctuation mark in English.  Understand that there is.

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Presentation on theme: "Separating Words and Groups of Words. Before We Begin…  The comma is the most frequently used punctuation mark in English.  Understand that there is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Separating Words and Groups of Words

2 Before We Begin…  The comma is the most frequently used punctuation mark in English.  Understand that there is NO RULE that says you use a comma because you need a pause somewhere in a sentence.  Yes, commas create pauses; however, there is a reason for every comma, even if it is only being used to avoid confusion in reading a sentence.  Remember this, and you will begin to think of commas as the useful punctuation mark they are.

3 Punctuation Can Be Fun, But… PPunctuation? marks! Like– “capitalization”,When used, In: the; wrong? Place: can. Get. To;! be.)really!(annoying!?,”’:;)( and! Make. Things. difficult; to, read.?!

4 Let’s Try That Again…  Punctuation marks, like capitalization, when used in the wrong place, can get to be really annoying!  So, make an effort not to annoy your reader by using proper punctuation.

5 1. Items in a Series  Use commas to separate items in a series. Three or more words or phrases make a series.  Examples: Butterflies, hummingbirds, and dragonflies darted about the garden. The lavish buffet included entrees of meat, fish, fowl, and pasta. John decided to eat some pork with peas, drink some tea, and finish the meal with chocolate cake. Note that there is a comma before the coordinating conjunction.

6 OOPS!

7 2. Combining Sentences  Use commas when you combine sentences using for, and, nor, but, or, yet, or so. (fanboys) Examples: Hunters and gatherers roamed freely, but farmers lived in one place. You can go with Ethel and her brother, or you can stay and help me.

8 ?

9 3. Introductory Phrases UUse a comma after an introductory phrase. Examples: Suddenly, it began to rain. Terrified by the thunder, Ralph hid under the bed.

10 4. Words and Phrases That Interrupt  Use a comma to set off words or phrases that interrupt a sentence. Use two commas if the word or phrase is in the middle of the sentence Use one comma if the word or phrase is at the beginning or end. Examples: The Great Divide is another name for the Rocky Mountains, a range of mountains that extends from the Mexican border to California. The Battle of Little Bighorn, also known as Custer’s Last Stand, was a defeat for General Custer at the hands of Sioux warriors.

11 Maybe because you don’t know how to punctuate sentences.

12 5. Transitional Phrases  Transitional phrases can be used at the beginning, middle, and end of sentences. Examples:  Of course, Napoleon was a poor leader.  Samuel Adams, on the other hand, would have been a great leader.  Washington was the best leader, naturally.

13 6. Names of Direct Address  Use a comma to set off names used when addressing someone directly. Examples: Tommy, can I read the book with you after school? Please insert yesterday’s homework in the proper folder, Margie. Okay, Jimmy, but tomorrow, make sure you bring your book to class.

14 In case you just want warm ice.

15 Appositives  An appositive is a noun or pronoun that follows another noun or pronoun to help identify or explain it. Examples:  Mr. Schremp, the football coach, teaches driver’s education.  Both of them, he and his dog, got lost on the wooded trail.

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17 7. More Appositives  An appositive phrase includes an appositive and all of its modifiers. Examples:  Mr. Schremp, the highly respected football coach, teaches driver’s education.  Both of them, he and his black and white dog, got lost on the wooded trail.

18 8. Parts of a Date  Use commas to separate parts of a date. Do NOT use a comma between the month and the year. Examples: The Battle of Little Bighorn took place on June 25, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in January (no comma)

19 9. Addresses  Use commas to separate the parts of an address. Do NOT use a comma to separate the state and zip code.  Examples: Clearview Middle School is located at 595 Jefferson Road, Mullica Hill, NJ The address of the White House is 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D.C.

20 10. Dialogue  Use commas to separate the dialogue tags from the quotation. Examples: “Mom!” said Jeffery anxiously. “Did you know I have three tests tomorrow?” “Well,” Jeffery’s mother replied, “I guess you better logoff Facebook and get busy studying!”

21 Compared to this…

22 Let’s Review

23 What’s Left Now?  There are, in fact, more rules for commas. But for now, you need only worry about the basics outlined in your notes.  Try it on your own. Turn to page 341 in your Language Essentials textbook, and complete exercise 5. Now, go to page 358 and complete exercises 2 and 3. These will combine end punctuation, commas, and semicolons.


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