commas Separate adjectives that come before a noun “They were attacked by a gigantic, ferocious shark”
Commas continued - Set off a speaker from a quotation Jason said, “Those clowns look like they’re up to no good.” Set off phrases and words that introduce a sentence Even though he’s smart, he’s very lazy.
Commas continued Set off words that are not necessary for the basic meaning of the sentence “Calgary, the 1989 Stanley Cup champion, has only one championship in their history.” http://www.pinterest.com/pin/6797 6275596940479/
Apostrophes Used for contractions (word shortening) “He’s (He is) a great player.” “I wouldn’t (would not) do that if I were you.” - Used for possessives (shows ownership) “ Jason’s sword has gone missing.” http://www.pinterest.com/p in/165296248793511869/ http://www.pinterest.com/p in/283445370270462282/
Apostrophes continued Exception to this rule: ITS – is a possessive (The dog wagged its tail.) IT’s – is a contraction (It’s (It is) a beautiful day.) Do not use apostrophes to pluralize a word.
Exercise : Apostrophes Punctuate the following sentences with apostrophes according to the rules for using the apostrophe. 1. Who's the party's candidate for vice president this year? 2. The fox had its right foreleg caught securely in the trap’s jaws. 3. Our neighbor’s car is an old Chrysler, and it’s just about to fall apart. 4. In three weeks’ time, we’ll have to begin school again. 5. Didn't you hear that they're leaving tomorrow? 6. Whenever I think of the stories I read as a child, I remember Cinderella's glass slipper and Snow White’s wicked stepmother. 7. We claimed the picnic table was ours, but the Smiths children looked so disappointed that we found another spot.
8. Its important that the kitten learns to find its way home. 9. She did not hear her childrens cries. 10. My address has three 7s, and Tims phone number has four 2s. 11. Didnt he say when he would arrive at Arnies house? 12. Its such a beautiful day that Ive decided to take a sun bath. 13. She said the watch Jack found was hers, but she couldnt identify the manufacturers name on it. 14. Little girls clothing is on the first floor, and the mens department is on the second. 15. The dogs bark was far worse than its bite. 16. The moons rays shone feebly on the path, and I heard the insects chirpings and whistlings. 17. Theyre not afraid to go ahead with the plans, though the choice is not theirs. 18. The man whose face was tan said that he had spent his two weeks vacation in the mountains. 19. I found myself constantly putting two cs in the word process.
Colons - Introduce a list The following students come to the office: Jason, Michael, Robert, and Harry. -Introduce a formal quotation The king leapt to his feet and said: “All of my people must obey!”
Colons continued - After the salutation of a formal letter (used to address people in an official manner): Dear Sir: I am writing to request information about...
Semi-colons To separate items in a list that already use commas The most polluted cities in the world are Moscow, Russia; Ankara, Turkey; and Beijing, China. -Act as a period but show a greater connection between sentences than a period does. Most of the students are here now; the rest are coming in the afternoon. https://m.youtube.com/ watch?v=E3qzXNf4noE https://m.youtube.com/ watch?v=kMtsUf59aQ4
Dashes (—) 1. Show a change in thought: “He went this way–no, that way.” 2. Show an interruption to the main idea “The Super Bowl—remember last year’s game?—is the most exciting part of January.” https://m.youtube.com/watch? v=tuTX8SmSoNE
Dashes (—) 3. Sets off a summary of what came before as a list. “Campfires, dirtbiking and swimming—all part of a great summer.”
Hyphens (-) Half as long as dashes 1.Used in some names: Terri-Lynn, Jean- Jacques, etc. 2. Used in some adjectives when they come before the noun A twenty-year-old man https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=65-5IdEP7Z8
Quotation marks (“ ” or ‘ ’) Double or single 1.Used to show someone is speaking “Hold on,” said Mark. 2. Used to show sarcasm or insincerity. He burned down my house and killed my dog! Some “friend” he turned out to be!
Quotation marks continued 3. Use single quotation marks inside of double quotation marks to prevent confusion Mark said, “Some ‘friend’ he turned out to be!”
parentheses () Not to be called “brackets”! 1.Enclose extra material in a sentence. John (if that’s his real name) seems to be a nice guy. 2. Around letters or numbers in labelling. For this assignment you will need (1) a sledgehammer, (2) a cabbage, and (3) all of Elmer’s School Glue you can find.
ellipses (…) Three dots... not two, not four, not twelve, not a hundred. THREE 1.Show an interruption in dialogue. “I don’t know if we can trust him if he’s... wait, is that him coming now?”
Ellipses continued 2. Identify incomplete thoughts “He had to do something... but what?” 3. Indicate that words have been left out of a quotation. Original: “Someday, we, along with our fathers, mothers and children, will be free.” With ellipses: “Someday, we... will be free.”