Presentation on theme: "Do Now Directions: In the following exercises, turn the sentence pairs into single compound sentences, each with a coordinating conjunction. 1. The black."— Presentation transcript:
Do Now Directions: In the following exercises, turn the sentence pairs into single compound sentences, each with a coordinating conjunction. 1. The black dog has won many prizes. He doesn't know many tricks. __________________________________________ 2. She saw a cat run in front of her. She fell down while roller- skating. __________________________________________ 3. There was a meteor shower. The crew did not know how to avoid the meteors. __________________________________________ 4. I wanted to buy a baby Chihuahua. I started to save my money. __________________________________________
Continue DO NOW below… 5. Pam liked Wayne. Leena also liked Wayne. _______________________________________ 6. You can cry like a baby. You can clean your room like an adult. ________________________________________ 7. She didn't want to play with Jill. She didn't want to play with Tim. ________________________________________ 8. I don’t want to practice playing my violin. I don’t want to disobey my mother. ________________________________________
Today’s Agenda!! Colons, Commas, and Semicolons Whiteboard Practice Partner Practice Exit Slip!!,
Colons The colon (:) is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. A colon has many uses, but today, we are simply going to learn how we use it in a business letter.
How are colons used in a business letter?? A business letter is more formal than a personal letter. ▫You would write a personal letter to a friend. You would write a business letter to the owner of a company, a person of authority, doctor, etc. In a business letter, you must formally address the person in the beginning. Most letters begin with “Dear (person’s last name):” ▫This is called the greeting, or SALUTATION. ▫The salutation in a business letter ALWAYS ends in a colon!!
Remember: When writing a letter to your friend, you do not have to use a colon. A colon is only used in a business letter. For example, when writing to a person of authority, you should probably use a colon. Dear Senator Dodd: It has come to our attention that..... To Whom It May Concern: Dear Mr. President:
We are now going to be talking about how to combine independent clauses… There are two effective ways to combine independent clauses. ▫Using a comma and conjunction. ▫Using a semicolon. Let’s take a look at each…
Independent Clauses…again?!?! Who can remind me what an independent clause is?? ▫Right!! An independent clause is a clause that can stand by itself. It has a subject, verb, and complete thought. It is a complete sentence!! What do we do when we have to combine two independent clauses?? ▫For example: Jane loves to go to the mall. She already spent all her allowance money. Jane loves to go to the mall, but she already spend all her allowance money. You must combine them with a comma and conjunction!!
Conjunctions!! To combine two independent clauses into one compound sentence, we use coordinating conjunctions. F=for A=and N=nor B=but O=or Y=yet S=so
Examples I am going home, and I intend to stay there. Marvin waited for the train, but the train was late. I do not like apples, nor do I enjoy bananas. English is a gruesome language, yet even a toddler can speak it. I couldn't find a hammer, so I banged the nail in with my head. Study hard for the test, for Dr. Turner will be upset you if you don't. You can play tennis, or you can sign up for fitness.
Try your own!! You are going to write four sentences, in which you use TWO independent clauses, and combine them with ONE coordinating conjunction and a comma. You will have 8 minutes to do this, then 4 volunteers will come write their best sentence on the board!!
There is another way to combine independent clauses!! Although using a comma and conjunction is often the best and most common way to combine two independent clauses, you can also use a semicolon!!
What is a semicolon?? A semicolon looks like a comma, with a period on top. Like this ; A semicolon is not quite a comma, not quite a period. It is a break in thought, but not a complete stop…more like a long pause. There are many uses of a semicolon. We will focus on how semicolons can connect two independent clauses.
Let’s begin with a simple sentence: ▫Grandma stays up too late. Now, let’s expand on that a bit. ▫Grandma stays up too late. She’s afraid she is going to miss something. We have learned that we can combine these two sentences, or two independent clauses, with a comma and conjunction. ▫Grandma stays up too late, for she’s afraid she is going to miss something. Isn’t there something else we can do?!?! YES!!
We can use a semicolon!! A semicolon can connect two independent clauses!! A semicolon functions the same way as a period and a capital letter. Grandma stays up too late ; she’s afraid she’s going to miss something. We subtracted the period and capital letter, and added a semicolon!! Notice there is no conjunction used with this semicolon – either subordinating or coordinating. Just the semicolon, all by itself.
The clauses on EACH side of the semicolon MUST be complete sentences/independent clauses. They cannot be dependent clauses or incomplete thoughts!! ▫Non-example: When I wanted to go to the movies; I asked my friends. MAIN IDEA: To use a semicolon, you must have two independent clauses!!
Examples!! Two independent clauses alone Combined by a semicolon!! Please open the window. It is hot in here. We went to Disneyland. We had a great time. He ate six hotdogs. He also got a stomachache. I forgot to feed my dog today. He was starving by the next morning. Please open the window; it is hot in here. We went to Disneyland; we had a great time. He ate six hotdogs; he also got a stomachache. I forgot to feed my dog today; he was starving by the next morning.
One more note about semicolons… Semicolons can also be used to combine two complete sentences that use words, such as: however, therefore, nevertheless, consequently, and as a result. Example: ▫We are creating study guides to help students prepare for the tests; therefore, students’ scores are reflecting improvement. One independent clause, or complete sentence. Another independent clause. Must have the order: semicolon, therefore, comma
Examples Grandma is afraid she’s going to miss something; as a result, she stays up too late. I thought I was going to win the swim competition; however, there were many girls who could swim much faster than I could. I did not win the competition; nevertheless, I continue to practice and swim hard. John and Melissa were neighbors for ten years; therefore, they know everything about each other.
Recap!! A colon is used after the salutation of a business letter. Two independent clauses can be combined with a FANBOYS conjunction and a comma. Two independent clauses can be combined with one semicolon. When two independent clauses use the words: however, therefore, as a result, consequently, or nevertheless, they are combined by a semicolon, the word, then a comma.
Whiteboard practice!! You have one minute to get out your whiteboard and marker, and sit in scholar-ready position!!
What is the correct way to write the underlined words? There are not as many sequoias as there used to be, but people are working to preserve more of these incredible trees. A.) used to be but people B.) used to be but, people C.) used to be, but, people D.) Leave as is.
What is the correct way to write the underlined part of this sentence? It can be difficult at first but if you stay patient and follow instructions carefully, you can be an origami artist too! ▫A.) first; but ▫B.) first: but ▫C.) first, but ▫D.) Leave as is.
Which of the following is the correct way to write the salutation of a business letter?? ▫A.) Dear Mom, ▫B.) Dear Jessica, my BFF, ▫C.) Dear Mr. Johnson: ▫D.) Dear Mr. Reyes;
Which of the following is NOT a correct way to combine two independent clauses?? ▫A.) Tom reads novels, but Jack reads comics. ▫B.) Tom reads novels; however, Jack reads comics. ▫C.) Tom reads novels: Jack reads comics. ▫D.) Tom reads novels; Jack reads comics.
Which is the correct punctuation for the underlined part of the sentence? Worker bees neither lay eggs nor mate but they do perform a variety of other essential jobs. ▫A.) nor mate, but; they do perform ▫B.) nor mate. But; they do perform ▫C.) nor mate, but they do perform ▫D.) nor mate but, they do perform
What is the correct way to punctuate the underlined part of the sentence? His father trained him to be a fearless warrior and the Greek philosopher Aristotle taught him about other cultures. ▫A.) fearless warrior—and the Greek philosopher ▫B.) fearless warrior; and the Greek philosopher ▫C.) fearless warrior: and the Greek philosopher ▫D.) fearless warrior, and the Greek philosopher
Which of the following uses a semicolon correctly?? ▫A.) He ran for a touchdown; and won. ▫B.) He ran for a touchdown; he won the game for his team. ▫C.) He ran; for a touchdown. ▫D.) He ran for a touchdown and; he won.
Partner Worksheet!! With a partner, you are going to complete the worksheet that I will hand out. You will not write on it!! Do all of your work on the left hand side of your notebook. Be sure to use your notes and work carefully, because you will have your exit slip when you are finished!!
Exit Slip!! Take out half a sheet of paper. Number it #1-5 Name: Period: Date: 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)
#1 Which of the following is the best way to punctuate a business letter? ▫A.) To Whom It May Concern; ▫B.) To Whom It May Concern. ▫C.) To Whom It May Concern: ▫D.) To Whom It May Concern,
#2 Which is the best way to join these two clauses? ▫A.) You should not eat peanut butter with chicken; you should eat peanut butter with jelly. ▫B.) You should not eat peanut butter with chicken, you should eat peanut butter with jelly. ▫C.) You should not eat peanut butter with chicken and you should eat peanut butter with jelly. ▫D.) You should not eat peanut butter with chicken, although you should eat peanut butter with jelly.
#3 Which is the best way to join these two ideas? ▫A.) There was a thunderstorm yesterday, but we managed to have our picnic anyway. ▫B.) There was a thunderstorm yesterday, so we managed to have our picnic anyway. ▫C.) There was a thunderstorm yesterday, we managed to have our picnic anyway. ▫D.) There was a thunderstorm yesterday, while we managed to have our picnic anyway.
#4 Which is the correct way to use a semicolon?? ▫A.) While we were at the park; we saw some famous people. ▫B.) I took many notes for the test, however; I lost them before I could study. ▫C.) He read every night for one hour; as a result, his English scores improved significantly. ▫D.) Dear John; I thought your movie was great.
#5 Which of the following is NOT a correct way to use a semicolon? ▫A.) I cannot wait to go to the mall; I have saved my money for three weeks. ▫B.) He should not have bought that movie; however, he did save ten dollars on it. ▫C.) Paula discovered that she had many talents; she could dance on the balance beam for hours. ▫D.) Although I read the book; I forgot what happened in the end.