3Fill-in-the-blank practice A 1. names a person, place, thing, or idea.Ex. Mary, nurse, chairA 2. substitutes for a noun.Ex. he, she, itA 3. expresses action or being.Ex. sleep, read, be, am, have, hasAn 4. modifies—tells something about—a noun or pronoun. There are 4 kinds: pointing, descriptive, articles, limiting.Ex. cheap, blue, the, an, sad, severalAn 5. modifies—tells something about—a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. Most of these end with ly.Ex. slow(ly), very, quickly, ratherA 6. joins—or connects—two words or groups of words. FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) are 6. a). A 6. b) precedes a word group made up of a noun or pronoun plus a verb and may either begin a sentence or join parts of a sentence.Ex. however, because, therefore, whenA 7. introduces a prepositional phrase. A 7. a) begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun that is the object of the preposition. Describing words may come between the preposition and its object. A verb cannot be part of a prepositional phrase.Ex. in, from, to, duringAn 8. is expressive words or phrases usually followed by an exclamation mark.Ex. Wow! Ouch! Yikes!Fill-in-the-blank practice1. Noun2. Pronoun3. Verb4. Adjective5. Adverb6. Conjunction a) Coordinating conjunction b) Dependent conjunction7. Preposition a) Prepositional phrase8. Interjection
4How do you write a complete sentence? 3 characteristics:Identity—the subject (noun or pronoun)—tells who or what a sentence is aboutAction—the verb—doing, having, being, helping—tells what the subject does, is, or hasIndependence—the ability to stand alone as a complete thought
5When Sentences Go Wrong: Fragments avoid using them in most business writing, unless writing informallyan incomplete word group beginning with a capital letter and ending with a periodEx. When she reads at the library.How to Recognize Onelook for a word group without a subject that begins with a capital letter and ends with a periodEx. While walking to the library. (Who is walking to the library?)How to Correct Oneadd an independent clause before or after the dependent clauseEx. Since she is studying for long hours, she will do well on the exam.
6Other Common Types of Sentence Errors Comma SpliceRun-onoccurs when you join two or more independent clauses with a comma but without a coordinating conjunction (fanboys)Ex. Justin Bieber is very popular in the music industry, he is loved by many young teenage girls.occurs when the writer goes on and on and doesn’t insert a period or a connecting word where neededEx. Justin Bieber is very popular in the music industry he is loved by many young teenage girls.
7Correcting Comma Splices and Run-ons separate independent clauses with a period and capital letter (this will result in two sentences)Ex. Make sure you are on time for appointments. Don’t be late.connect closely related independent clauses with a semicolonEx. Make sure you are on time for appointments; don’t be late.connect with a comma and coordinating conjunction (fanboys)Ex. Make sure you are on time for appointments, so don’t be late.Using Transitional Words and Phrasesex. for example, furthermore, however, in addition, thereforewhen a transitional word or phrase connects independent clauses, insert a semicolon or a period—not a comma—before the transition (a comma would result in a comma splice)Ex. I would like to help you study for the final; however, I have to pick up my little brother from school.Ex. I would like to help you study for the final. However, I have to pick up my little brother from school.use commas before and after a transitional word that does not connect independent clausesEx. This group, however, is unable to see the point of this activity.
8Mastering Nouns—Plurals and Capitals Forming plurals of nounsExceptions to s and esNouns ending in y: if a vowel (a, e, I, o, u) precedes y, add s (ex. Valleys)if a consonant precedes y, change the y to I and add es (ex. Industries)Nouns ending in o: if a vowel precedes the o, add s (ex. Radios)Nouns ending in f: if a word ends with ff, add s (ex. Rebuffs, lives)
9Pluralizing Irregular Nouns and Proper Nouns Irregular Noun Plurals(manmen, womanwomen, mousemice, toothteeth, childchildren, footfeet)some nouns ending in s are singular or plural depending on the meaning (ex. politics, mathematics)Ex. The politics of last year have been complicated.Ex. Politics is my favorite subject.Some nouns ending in s are always singular, while others are always plural(always singular news, aeronautics; always plural scissors, proceeds)Ex. The news is not good.Ex. My scissors have been stolen.Plurals of Proper Nounsto make a proper noun plural, add s or esnever use an apostrophe to form the plural of a proper nameEx. The Grossets are listed in the book.
10Capitalizing Proper Nouns proper noun: a noun beginning with a capital lettercommon noun: noun that does not begin with a capitalcapitalize official titles used directly before a person’s name or used in “direct address”Ex. President George W. Bushdo not capitalize an official title when it is used as a general term of descriptionEx. Sam Fields was elected mayor of Springfield in 1981.capitalize titles written after the name as part of the person’s official identificationEx. Mr. Jerry Savant, Director of Public Relationscapitalize a family title when used as part of the name or instead of the nameEx. I attended Aunt Marion’s 50th birthday party downtown.do not capitalize if the family title is not being used as part of the nameEx. I asked my Uncle Simon about his childhood. vs. I asked my uncle about his childhood.words like company, college, and association are usually capitalized only when used with the name of the organizationEx. Grande Prairie Regional College is a short drive from here. vs. The college is a short drive from here.capitalize the official name of a department or a committeeEx. Write a proposal to the Advertising Department.capitalize words like town, city, state, and county when they are part of the official name or if a governing body uses the geographic term officially; otherwise do not capitalize themEx. Mayor Godfrey said the City of Los Angeles would be experiencing some severe weather soon. vs. The city of Los Angeles is really fun to visit.capitalize specific geographic regions with compass point names; do not capitalize directions or general locationsEx. They live in the West. vs. Drive two miles east on 31st Street.use lowercase letters for the names of seasonsEx. The store will remain open for an extra day this winter.always capitalize names of languages; do not capitalize names of courses unless they are languages or official course namesEx. Sophie is studying accounting and French this semester and will be taking a psychology course next semester.races named by color begin with lowercase letters, but sociological names of races and ethnic groups are capitalized; religions are also capitalizedEx. white/Caucasian; black/African American
11Mastering Nouns—Possessives To form the possessive of nouns, use an apostrophe (‘) and an s. do not use an apostrophe in plural nouns that are not possessive.Possessive nouns: show the relationship between one noun and another nounA possessive noun can replace a prepositional phraseEx. Alex’s brother is very talented. [brother of Alex]To form possessives of regular nouns, add an apostrophe before the s if the noun is singular and after the s if the noun is pluralEx. Toronto’s weather is colder than I expected.Ex. The students’ new uniforms are on the agenda for discussion.
12EXCEPTION: if adding ‘s to the singular noun makes the word hard to say, then add only the apostropheEx. Mrs. Menzies’ office is upstairs.Compound Singular Nounsall words, whether individual words or compound nouns, form possessives at the end, not somewhere in the middleEx. My sister-in-law’s attitude frightens me.Plural Nouns Ending in sadd only an apostrophe to make a plural noun that ends in s possessiveEx. The students’ voices were very loud.Plural Nouns that Don’t End in sif a plural possessive noun does not end in s, add ‘s to make it possessiveEx. Women’s jeans are very expensive.Compound Plural Possessivessome compound words become plural by adding s to the first word—like brothers-in-law; this plural word does not end in s but in wEx. My sisters-in-law’s fashion choices amaze all of us.
13Pronounsa word that substitutes for a noun, it refers to someone or something previously named by a noun
14Types of Pronouns3 types: personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns, and indefinite pronouns1. Personal Pronouns: 3 typesSubjective case: when a pronoun is used as the subject of a sentence, who/what a sentence is aboutEx. She missed the bus for school. They voted on Thursday.Objective case: when a pronoun is used as an object of a verb or a prepositionEx. My boss took me out to lunch. Bill confronted them about bullying Joey.Possessive case: when a pronoun shows possession (ownership)Ex. That ring belongs to her. Bobby asked if Erica could join their group.
15Pronoun Reference Chart PERSONAL PRONOUNSSINGULARPLURALPersonSubjectiveObjectivePossessiveFirst personImemy, mineweusour, oursSecond personyouyour, yoursThird personhe, she, it, whohim, her, it, whomwhosewho, whoeverwhom, whomever2. Reflexive Pronouns: end in self/selvesFirst person—myself, ourselvesSecond person—yourself, yourselvesThird person—himself, herself, itself, oneself, themselvesEx. Remove yourself from the situation.I told myself I wouldn’t cry.3. Indefinite Pronouns: refer to nonspecific people or things, possessive form is shown by adding ‘sEvery(one/body/thing), any(one/body/thing), no (one/body/thing), some(one/body/thing)Some, several, both, few, any, one, all (when not followed by a noun)Ex. Someone left their jacket on the bus. Everybody needs somebody sometime. No one’s friend stood up for them.
16Who and WhomImagine He or HimImagine a StatementImagine replacing who or whom with he or him (ignore whether the person is male or female). If he fits, use who or whoever; if him fits, use whom or whomever.Ex. Mr. Perry is the person who gave me the gift. [He gave me the gift.]Ex. Assign the chores to whomever you want. [Assign the chores to him.]If the sentence is a question, imagine it as a statement before making the who/whom choice.Ex. Whom are you taking to the prom? [I am taking him to the prom.]
17Indefinite Pronouns In-Depth refer to nonspecific persons or thingsSingularPluraleach, every, either, neither, everyone, someone, anyone, no one, one, everybody, nobody, somebody, anybodyEx. Everyone is attending the meeting this morning.his, her, or its—not the plural their—is used for substitutionEx. Each building has its own sense of charm.all, any, both, few, more, most, none, someEx. Most have left the country.Pronoun Gender and Numberwhen both sexes are represented, avoid the shortcut of using only male gender—his, he, or himinstead, say him or heralso, nouns and pronouns should agree in numberEx. Each staff member has his or her duties to fulfill. OREx. Staff members have their duties to fulfill. OREx. Each staff member has a duty to fulfill.
18Agreements and Complements collective nouns name groups of people, animals, or things and when a pronoun replaces a collective noun, it must agree in numberuse a singular pronoun—it, its, itself—to substitute for a collective noun if the members of the group act as one (a single unit)Ex. The crowd announced its message. OR The crowd announced the message.use a singular pronoun to substitute for names of organizationsEx. Safeway opens its doors at 8 a.m.use a plural pronoun to substitute for a plural noun—juries, companies, colleges, classes, teamsEx. The teams announced their defeat.Agreements and ComplementsPronouns Referring to Collective Nounsaudience, class, committee, congregation, crowd, family, group, jury, navy, squad, staff, team
19Verbs: Where the Action is an action or state of beingThe Basics:Every sentence must have at least one verb. Some verbs are single words. Others consist of two or more: one or more helping verbs and a main verb.Ex. Jane ran across the field. [action verb]Ex. Jane was in the kitchen. [being verb]Ex. The boy should have studied harder. [should and have = helping verbs; studied = action verb]Infinitives = basic forms of verbs preceded by to. Do not confuse an infinite with the verb; the verb is elsewhere in the sentence.Ex. The manager plans to fire the new girl. [subject = manager; verb = plans]Choosing a verb form depends on tense (time), number, and person.Tense past, present, or future?Number singular or plural subject?Person 1st person, 2nd person, or 3rd person subject?
20something that has already happened Verb Tensessomething that has already happenedEx. I went to the gym.something that has already happened and will continue in the futureEx. I have worked on this project for days.something that is happening nowEx. I walk to school every day.something that is happening now and will continue in the futureEx. I am shoveling snow until midnight.something that is going to happenEx. Sally will work on Friday.PastPast participlePresentPresent participleFuture
21Verb Forms does not follow regular verb rules when changing tense Irregularchanges form by adding s, ed, or ing to the basic formEx. He walked down the street.Ex. The cat is scratching the post.when a sentence has two or more verbs, generally express them in the same tenseEx. I am working on this project and drinking water.for a general truth, always use the present tenseEx. When Mr. Smith told us that Tokyo is smaller than New York, he was wrong.does not follow regular verb rules when changing tenseEx. I wore my favorite sweater today.Ex. She has broken her dish.Sentences with Two or More Verbs
22Identifying Subjects and Verbs every sentence has at least one independent clause (a group of words that includes a subject and verb) and communicates a complete thoughtverb = action or being wordsubject = noun or pronoun (tells who or what is doing or being)to find a subject, first find the verbthen ask “who” or “what” before the verb, and the answer is the subjectEx. Vicky watches Oprah every day. [Vicky = subject; watches = verb]sometimes the subject will look like a verb when it names an activityEx. Jogging is one of my favorite activities. [it is actually a noun (naming an activity)]Ex. To laugh would be rude. [actually a noun]the understood you may be the subject of a sentence that gives a command or makes a polite requestEx. Please me by Wednesday.
23Subject and Verb Agreement a subject and its verb must agree—if the subject is singular, then use a singular verb; if it is plural, use the plural verb formSingular SubjectEx. She jogs for an hour every day.Ex. You are the loser of the race.Compound SubjectJoined by or/normake the verb agree with the noun or pronoun following the or/norEx. Either Jennifer or I am cleaning the house.Joined by andthe subject is plural and therefore requires the verb form without sEx. A resume and a cover letter are needed from you.Indefinite Pronounsboth, many, several, few—use the verb form without sEx. Few have been selected.if each, every, many, a, an, one, either, neither, another, or a pronoun ending with one, body, or thing precedes a subject, it is singular and requires the s verbEx. Each parent and child needs to get on that boat.Separating Wordswhen choosing a verb form, ignore all words, phrases, or clauses separating a subject and its verbEx. The box of crayons is on the desk.The Word Numbersingular if the precedes it; plural if a precedes itEx. The number of shops on this street is amazing.Ex. A number of books have been written by that professor.
24Collective Noun Agreement ex. club, herd, staff, management, family, class, faculty, company, committee, crowd, jury, and names of organizationsif a collective noun acting as a single unit is a subject, use a singular verbEx. Walmart has thousands of employees.if the members of a collective noun act as separate individuals or disagree, use a plural verbEx. The staff disagree about the new company policy. [if members disagree, they are not acting as a unit]
25Adjectives and Adverbs Adjectives and adverbs are “modifiers”; they tell about, describe, tell how many, or add special meaning to other wordsAdjectives modify nouns and pronouns4 types: pointing, describing, and limiting adjectives, and articlesAdverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs
26Pointing Adjectivesthis, that, these, or those when they come before a nounEx. This book is mine.this and that point to singular nounsEx. This outfit is not suitable for that kind of occasion.these and those point to plural nounsEx. These outfits are not suitable.never use them as a pointing adjective (it is only a pronoun)Ex. I plan to give them boys a hug.Ex. I plan to give those (or these) boys a hug. ORI plan to give them a hug.never use the following: this/that/them here/thereEx. This here is my car.Ex. This is my car.
27The 3 Articles the, a, and an the = “definite” (specific)article a and an = “indefinite” articlesEx. We are going to the zoo.Ex. We are going to a zoo.Managing a and andepends on the sound of the word, not necessarily the written letterEx. an oliveif a word following a or an begins with a vowel sound (the sound of a, e, i, o, or u) use an; if not, use aEx. a 5 percent dropsome words begin with a vowel but have a consonant (all letters other than a, e, i, o, or u) sound, so they require a, not anEx. a unicornsometimes when a word begins with h, it is silent so an is usedEx. an honest manwhen stating a letter of the alphabet alone or as part of an abbreviation, go by the soundEx. an M
28double negative = when two negative words express one negative idea REMEMBER: two negatives should never be combined to express one negative ideaEx. I don’t know nobody in that class.Ex. I don’t know anybody in that class.Double Negatives
29Making Comparisons: Descriptive Adjectives 3 forms/degrees: positive, comparative, and superlativePositive Degree—for OneComparative Degree—for Twodoes not make a comparisonEx. She is young.Ex. It is artistic.compare two nouns or pronounseither add er to the end of the word or use more or less before the adjectiveEx. She is younger.Ex. It is more artistic.Superlative Degree—for Three or Morecompare three or more nouns or pronounseither add est to the end of the word or use most or least before the adjectiveEx. She is the youngest.Ex. It is the most artistic.
30Double Comparatives and Superlatives NEVER use more, most, less, or least before a modifier that ends with er or estEx. She is the most happiest girl I’ve ever known.Ex. She is the happiest girl I’ve ever known.Double Comparatives and Superlatives
31Should I use an adjective or an adverb? AdjectivesAdverbsmodify nouns or pronounsmodify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbsmost (but not all) end in lyEx. quickly (adverb) vs. quick (adjective)some do not end with lyEx. always, never, often, seldom, verywords change from adjective to adverb, depending on what they modifysometimes the same word is either an adjective or an adverbEx. She is a fast runner. (adjective)Ex. She runs fast. (adverb)
32Adjective to Adverb Comparisons to make ly adverbs comparative (for two) or superlative (for three or more), use more/less or most/least before themEx. rude (adjective)rudely (adverb)more/less rudely (comparative adverb)most/least rudely (superlative adverb)Adjective to Adverb ComparisonsGood/Well and Bad/Badlyto choose between good and well, decide whether you need an adjective or an adverbchoose good if an adjective is needed; choose well if an adverb is neededEx. Emma wrote a good essay.Ex. Emma wrote really well.regarding one’s health or state of being, either good or well is correct with the being verb feelEx. They feel good.Ex. They feel well.when health is not the topic, use an adjective after a being verbEx. The pasta smells good.an adverb—never an adjective—always modifies an action verbEx. She sings beautifully.Real and Surethese are adjectives, so do not use them to describe other adjectivesEx. He is real sorry for disappointing you.Ex. He is really sorry for disappointing you.real can mean “genuine”Ex. That is a real smile.if you can substitute very, you need an adverbEx. She is very stupid.
33Using Commas Correctly Items in a Seriesused to separate items in a series of three or more words, phrases, or clausesEx. I have met Brad Pitt, George Clooney, and Johnny Depp. [word series]Ex. Today I had to answer s, buy groceries, and cook supper. [phrase series]Ex. We believe that your ideas were explained well, that your spelling was correct, and that your conclusion was strong. [clause series]not used if a conjunction (fanboy) comes before each item in the seriesEx. Doctors and nurses and therapists are trying to help Betty.although technically correct, good writing requires that you omit extra wordsEx. Doctors, nurses, and therapists are trying to help Betty.Two or More Adjectives Togetherapply the “series” rule to three or more items; for adjectives, however, use a comma between just two or more that describe the same nounEx. The young girls collected flowers during the hot, sunny summer. [and makes sense between adjectives hot and sunny]Test by Omitting andimagine and between consecutive adjectives; if it makes sense, then it is correct to use a comma to replace andEx. He is a funny, adorable boy.Ex. He is an adorable, funny boy.Test by Reversing the Adjectivesif you reverse the order of consecutive adjectives and they make sense either way, use a commaEx. Many young people attended the meeting. [reversing the adjectives—young many people—doesn’t make sense, so a comma is not needed]
34Commas Join Parts of Sentences Joining Independent ClausesContrasting Expressionsindependent clause = subject+verbuse a comma before a coordinating conjunction (fanboy)Ex. Emily ed Sally, but she forgot to Jen. [2 independent clauses are joined by a comma and the fanboy but]Ex. Emily ed Sally but forgot to Jen. [1 independent clause; subject = Emily; 2 verbs = ed and forgot; prepositional phrase = to Jen, therefore no comma is needed]How to Recognize Independent Clausesremember that an independent clause has to have a subject and a verb and it must be able to stand alone as a complete thoughtEx. Not only is Veronica strong, but she also is good-looking. [2 independent clauses = comma needed]Ex. Veronica is not only strong but also is good-looking. [1 independent clause = no comma needed]Exception to the Comma Rulea comma is not needed in a short sentence (less than ten words) when and or or joins an independent clauseEx. She laughed and I giggled.if any other fanboy joins the independent clause, however, do use a comma regardless of sentence lengthEx. She laughed, but I giggled.used to set off a sharply contrasting or opposite expression, generally introduced by not, never, seldom, but, or yetEx. She often thinks about leaving him, but never goes through with it.used to replace an omitted verb that is easily understood from the wording of the rest of the sentenceEx. Emily is now in London and Sarah, in Manchester.Omitting a Verb
35Commas and Introductory Words used after one-word or very short expressions that introduceEx. Yes, I would be happy to help you with your chores.used after the “direct address” of a personEx. Mr. Smith, are you able to help me with my homework?not used after a short “place” and “time”, unless a comma is needed for clarification or emphasisEx. In 2012 Vicky decided to go to college.used after an interrupting phrase that is not crucial to the meaning of the sentenceEx. In 2012, after talking to her husband, Vicky decided to go to college.used after a short introductory expression that includes a verbEx. I was unsure, but I will complete it right away.used after an introductory expression of fewer than five words and no verb form, either for clarity or for transitionEx. Once outside, it was easier for the couple to relax. [clarity]Ex. Furthermore, she was able to finish her essay on time. [transition]used after an introductory expression of more than four words, either including a verb or notEx. Because of her outrageous fashion choices, she stood out in a crowd.Commas and Introductory Wordsmany, but not all, introductory expressions are followed by a comma to separate them from the main idea—or independent clause—of the sentence
36Setting Off Words and Phrases Nonessential ExpressionsEssential Expressionsrequire commasif removed, the rest of the sentence wouldn’t lose its meaningEx. Jennifer Clark, of course, is late for work again.Ex. Jennifer Clark, who is a nurse, is late for work again.do not require commasif removed, the rest of the sentence would lose its meaningEx. A person who wants to be a doctor should volunteer at a hospital.Ex. Someone like you should apply for this position.many of these are “essential” and do not require commasEx. We saw your sister at the mall yesterday.Prepositional Phrases
37Commas with Which and That Use Which to begin nonessential expressionsUse that to begin essential expressionsEx. The new house, which has been rented by Jeffrey Sanders, is on Dunbar Street.Ex. Houses that overlook the ocean will always be desirable.
38Four Ways to use Commas States Dates Abbreviations Names to separate the name of a state, province, or country that follows the name of a smaller unit, like a cityEx. Did you visit London, England, or London, Ontario?to separate the year from the day2 different styles of dates: American (month/day/year) and international or military (day/month/year)Ex. The Independence Day ceremony was held on July 4, 2012.Ex. I left for London, England, on 23 December 2012.to express the title of an individual (do not use periods in these abbreviations)Ex. Bob F. Percy, PhD, will be speaking at the lecture this evening.do not separate an individual’s birth title (Jr., Sr., II, III), unless written that wayEx. David Smith Jr.when a company name is followed by a title such as Inc. or Ltd., do not insert a comma, unless specifiedEx. GRB Engineering Inc.to directly use the name of a personEx. Because you are such a good friend, Alex, I will invite you to my party.StatesDatesAmerican date style(comma)international or military date style (no comma)AbbreviationsNames
393 Final Ways to Use Commas Quotation Marksto separate direct quotations (a person’s exact words) from the rest of the sentencethis can happen at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentenceEx. “I will never go on that rollercoaster again,” Joe said. [beginning]Ex. “I will never,” Joe said, “go on that rollercoaster again.” [middle]Ex. Joe said, “I will never go on that rollercoaster again.” [end]no comma is needed when a quotation ends with a question mark or an exclamation markEx. “Have you ever done that before?” asked Kaylee.no comma is needed before a quotation that is “woven” into the sentenceEx. Trina answered “no” to the question.Numbersnumbers of more than 4 digitsEx. 15,420in 4-digit numbers, it is recommended to add a commaEx. $5,869ensure consistency of commas when you have different denominations of numbersEx. There are 15,250 red marbles, 10,000 blue marbles, and 25,000 green marbles.no commas are needed in numbers that “identify” (addresses, serial numbers, page numbers, etc.)Ex. page Street NoAddressesto separate address parts; however, no comma is needed between the province or state and the ZIPEx. Please return the book to Avenue, Grande Prairie, AB T8X 0H7, before next week.
40How do I punctuate sentences properly? The Semicolon (;)The Colon (:)introduces and emphasizesWith Words, Clauses, and Phrasesif a clause, phrase, or even a single word explains or is connected to the original clause, it is usedEx. One word describes how I feel right now: emotional.if a sentence introduces a quotation, it is usedEx. Tom added this statement to the letter: “I hope to hear from you in a week.”With Items in a Series or Listused to introduce items in a series (more emphasis is placed)Ex. Julie desires these qualities in men: confidence, kindness, and humility.also used if items are listed vertically, whether or not the introduction is a sentenceEx. The groceries we need:applesmilkbreadhamEx. The groceries we need are these:NOT used before a list if there is another sentence after the introductory sentenceEx. Please send the following people to detention. The principal needs to see them immediately.Sally FieldsFred SquiresGeorge HungIn Written Communicationsused after the salutation and a comma after the complimentary close in business letters and sSalutation Dear Mrs. Sales:Complimentary close Sincerely,With Numbersused between hours and minutes to express time and for mathematical ratiosEx. I arrived for work at 8:30 a.m.Ex. The ratio is 5:3. (read as “5 to 3.”)joins independent clausesWithout Coordinating Conjunctionsused between closely related independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction (fanboys—for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)Ex. Christmas is a week away; I should mail my Christmas cards soon.used before a transitional expression joining independent clausesEx. Christmas is a week away; therefore, I should mail my Christmas cards.using a period after the first clause and a capital letter to begin a new sentence would also be correctEx. Christmas is a week away. I should mail my Christmas cards soon.With Coordinating Conjunctionsif a sentence already has two or more commas, it can be used before a coordinating conjunctionEx. Professor Dumbledore, who is a well-respected wizard and teacher at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is an amazing teacher; but people have said he is thinking of retiring in the next year.Before Certain Transitionsused after an independent clause that precedes for example, for instance, namely, or that is—if a list or an explanation is introducedEx. When going on a first date, do not discuss inappropriate topics; for example, past partners or embarrassing secrets.Between Series Itemsused between the items of a series only if there are commas within the items as wellEx. WestJet layovers will be in Calgary, Alberta; Winnipeg, Manitoba; and Toronto, Ontario.
41Ending Punctuation (. ! ?) Period Question Mark elliptical question used after a statement, command, or courteous request or indirect question that is a statement but sounds like a questionEx. We are going to study for our finals next week. [statement]Ex. Study for your finals this week. [command]Ex. Please study for your finals this week. [courteous request]Ex. Would you please study for your finals. [courteous request that sounds like a question]Ex. I asked whether you would study for your finals. [indirect question]used after an abbreviationEx. Please plan to pick up the boys at 3 p.m.used to separate the digits in telephone numbers instead of parentheses and hyphens (still correct to write phone numbers traditionally, however)Ex. (800) or [traditional]Ex [modern]used after a direct question that requires a replyEx. Will you be at home at 7:00?short question (capitalize each question)Ex. Will you pay me back for that? If so, when?used at the end of a sentence to express strong feeling, it shows strong emotion or urgencyEx. I am so excited!Ex. No way!Ending Punctuation (. ! ?)PeriodQuestion Markelliptical questionExclamation Point
42Dashes and Parentheses emphasize nonessential expressions ordinarily enclosed with commasEx. My boss has misplaced two of my timecards—actually, it was more like three.de-emphasize expressionsEx. Henry Smith (my boss of five years) is not very nice.enclose information that is added to a sentence for reference or clarificationEx. The houses (see page 5 for addresses) need to be appraised. [references and dates]Ex. Please mail the following information immediately: (a) two references from previous employers; (b) a cover letter; (c) your current address. [numbers or letters of listed items]Ex. Betty had to go to the Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting tonight. [abbreviations]
43Bracketsa stronger way to separate wordsIn QuotationsExpressions within Parenthesesused for adding words in order to add clarity or information within a quotationEx. My boss stated, “Profits [January-April] are 0.09 percent below last year.”used for adding clarification within a parenthetical expressionEx. To understand what I am talking about in my essay, I suggest you read the book written by Sally Fields, How to Succeed in the Business World. (I believe it was published [by a vanity press] in the early 80s, but check online as well.)
44BibliographySmith, Leila R. & Roberta Moore. English for Careers: Business, Professional, and Technical, 10th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 1999.