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Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Disclaimer All workshops and workshop materials are the sole.

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Presentation on theme: "Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Disclaimer All workshops and workshop materials are the sole."— Presentation transcript:

1 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Disclaimer All workshops and workshop materials are the sole property of PEGS and cannot be published, copied, or disseminated without prior written approval from PEGS and are for student and faculty use only. 1

2 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills APA Formatting and Style (6 th Ed.): An Introduction Presented by PEGS Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies This presentation is not comprehensive but does address common concerns. See the APA manual or a writer’s guide for further details. 2

3 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills TITLE PAGE 3

4 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills HEADINGS The introduction to a manuscript does not carry a heading that labels it as the introduction. (The first part of a manuscript is assumed to be the introduction.) However, you should re-type your title, centered at the top of the page above your introduction. Do not label headings with numbers or letters. The number of levels of heading needed for your article will depend on its length and complexity. 4

5 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills HEADINGS 5

6 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills 6 Level Format 1Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Begin body text on the next line. 2Flush Left, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading Begin body text on the next line. 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Begin body text after the period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Begin body text after the period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Begin body text after the period. HEADINGS

7 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Seriation Just as the heading structure alerts readers to the order of ideas within the entire paper, seriation helps the reader understand the organization of key points within sentences, sections, and paragraphs. In any series, all items should maintain the same format and revolve around the same concept. 7

8 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Seriation Example – “Using the learned helplessness theory, we predicted that the depressed and non-depressed participants would make the following judgments of control: 1. Individuals who...(paragraph continues) 2. Non-depressed persons…(continued) 3. Depressed persons…(continued) 4. Depressed and non-depressed…(continued)” 8

9 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Seriation Numbered lists may imply an unwarranted priority among items. If you wish to list items in a set that are of equal importance, consider using bullets instead of numbers. Capitalize and punctuate the bulleted list in complete sentences. 9

10 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Seriation Within a sentence, use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas; use semicolons to separate three or more elements that have internal commas. Example – “We tested three groups: (a) low scorers, who scored fewer than 20 points; (b) moderate scorers, who scored between 20 and 50 points; and (c) high scorers, who scored more than 50 points.” 10

11 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills 1. Why do we include references in our course work? 2. Why do we cite references? 11

12 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills 1.References amplify, complement, support, and contribute to what we say in our course work. 2.Citations acknowledge sources, and if you cite properly, you avoid plagiarism. 12

13 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Introduce a source with a signal phrase that includes the last name of the authors and the year of publication in a parenthetical citation ( ). Examples of signal phrases In the study by Smith (2011), members of street gangs tend to... As Wickerbacher (2000) suggested, teenagers experience... Patterson and Quixote (2009) observed that monkeys favor... Examples of verbs to use in signal phrases Add agree argue assert claim compare deny dispute emphasize note observe refute reject report respond suggest 13

14 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills However, optionally (a) place both the author and the year in the parenthetical citation, or (b) incorporate these elements into the text. Examples (a) One study demonstrates that the adjusted curriculum improves comprehension of critical race theory (Petersen, 2010). (b) In 2005, Callahan described... Commas divide these elements inside a parenthetical citation (Kroeber, 1925). Do not repeat the author in the text and in the parenthetical citation. 14

15 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills A source with multiple authors Always cite the names of 2 authors of a source. With 3 to 5 authors, write all the names in the first citation, but every subsequent citation only has the first name in the group plus “et al.” Six or more authors are always cited with first name plus et al. No comma before et al. Example First citation: Koestler, Kroeber, and Wickham (1950) argued that… Second citation: Koestler et al. (1950) continued to... 15

16 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills A source without an identified author Cite with a title. Sources that stand alone such as books, brochures, periodicals, journals, Web sites, e-books, reports, theses, and videos are italicized, whereas sources that are a part of a greater whole such as articles in a journal, chapters in an e-book, dictionary entry, and Web pages receive double quotation marks ( “ ” ). Example The article “Legalized Potheads” (2010) demonstrates that... No identified author but there’s an agency! A corporation or an agency responsible for a source serves as an author. Example The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012) offer up-to-date data on... 16

17 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Two or more sources List each source alphabetically and divide them with a semi-colon if they are placed inside the parenthetical citation. Example with both author and year inside the parenthetical citation Inquirers of the etymology of the tribal name Cahuilla (Koestler, 1931; Kroeber, 1925; Pederast & Tobin, 1960) agree that... Example with authors outside of it Koestler (1931), Kroeber (1925), and Pederast and Tobin (1960) agree that... 17

18 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills When we list the names of authors use the conjunction “and” for authors in a signal phrase, or the ampersand (&) for authors in a parenthetical citation. Examples Koestler and Kroeber (1930) Koestler, Kroeber, and Pederast (1931) (Koestler & Kroeber, 1930) (Koestler, Kroeber, & Pederast, 1931) 18

19 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills What if an author has a continuous part in the narrative within a paragraph? Do not include the year of publication in a subsequent non-parenthetical reference as long as this omission will not confuse a source with another one. Example 1 Among epidemiological samples, Kessler (2003) found that early onset social anxiety disorder results in a more potent and severe course. Kessler also found.... However, if the first citation is in parentheses, then include the year in a subsequent citation. Example 2 Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003). Kessler (2003) also found.... Examples: American Psychological Association. (2011). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Washington, D. C.: American Psychological Association. See pages

20 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills What if you have more than one author in a paragraph with the same last name? To avoid confusion, include the initial of the author’s first name in your citation although the year of publication might differ. Example Z. Patterson (2009) observed that “the Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home, the ruined temple of Bamboozio” (p. 6). However, J. Patterson (2007) claimed that “the Bamboozle monkeys in the proximity of the temple do not mind trespassers” (p. 18). 20

21 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills What if you have the same author, same year, but separate sources? Use the suffixes a, b, c, etc. to distinguish each source. Example Several studies (Patterson & Quixote, 2001a, 2001b; Wannabe, 1990) show that... 21

22 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills An important note on verb tense: Use past or present perfect tense for the actions of researchers in previous years, but use present tense for discussing their results. Example Using data from the National Crypto-zoological Research Society of 2001, Norton (2005) studied the violent reactions of sasquatches toward campers with video cameras over a three decade period. Results from this study indicate that sasquatches allow on average two seconds before they assault a camper. See the examples on the previous slide. 22

23 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills When you need to indicate the location of your reference (in the case of direct-quotes and summaries). Place this info inside a parenthetical citation. Write “p.” for one page (p. 1) or “pp.” for two or more pages (Patterson, 1999, pp. 4-5). Capitalize the “c” for a chapter (Chapter 8). Write paragraph as “ ¶” or as “para.” followed by a number (para. 10): Ten indicates the tenth paragraph. This is useful for webpages because they lack pagination. Count the number of paragraphs from the top-down. 23

24 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Directing a reader to the location of info in a website Since webpages don’t normally have pagination, try your best to indicate where you found information in the parenthetical citation, using an available heading or tab and the number of the paragraph if available. Examples (Introduction, para. 1) (Medical Abnormalities, para. 5) (Schmuck, 2000, Paranormal Events section, para. 10) 24

25 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote (borrowing word-for-word & using quotation marks) If less than 40 words, incorporate the quote into your text. Your text should flow into the borrowed information. Be grammatically correct. If the borrowed info includes the beginning of the sentence, lower case its first letter. Example Patterson and Quixote (2009) observed that “the Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home, the ruined temple of Bamboozio” (p. 6). 25

26 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote: block quote (word-for-word & no quotation marks) If the quote is 40 or more words, offset a long quotation by one-half inch, and place the citation after the period. Use a colon to introduce the block quote. The parenthetical citation for the original location comes after the period. Example Yanovsky and Yanovsky (2002) have described earlier treatments of obesity that focused on behavior modification : With the advent of behavioral treatments of obesity in the 1960s, hope arose that modification of maladaptive eating and exercise habits would lead to sustained weight loss, and that time-limited programs would produce permanent changes in weight. Medications for the treatment of obesity were proposed as short-term adjuncts for patients, who would presumably then acquire the skills necessary to continue to lose weight, reach “ideal body weight,” and maintain a reduced weight indefinitely. (p. 592) Example: Hacker, D. (2008). Rules for Writers (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford. See page

27 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote: ellipsis mark (... ) Use three dots with spaces between to condense a direct quote or to omit unnecessary material. Use a period before the ellipsis to indicate that you jump to another sentence. Be sure that your sentence is still grammatically correct! Examples Roman (2003) reported that “social factors are nearly as significant as individual metabolism in the formation of... dietary habits of adolescents” (p. 345). According to Sothern and Gordon (2003), “environmental factors may contribute as much as 80% to the causes of childhood obesity.... Research suggests that obese children demonstrate decreased levels of physical activity and increased psychosocial problems” (p. 104). Example: Hacker, D. (2008). Rules for Writers (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford. See page

28 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote: insert necessary words Indicate the assertion of your own words into a quote with brackets [ ] in order to fix a confusing reference or to establish grammatical correctness. Example The cost of treating obesity currently totals $117 billion per year—a price, according to the surgeon general, “second only to the cost of [treating] tobacco use” (Carmona, 2004, para. 9). Example: Hacker, D. (2008). Rules for Writers (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford. See page

29 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote: accuracy Insert the bracketed word [sic] immediately after the following mistakes: grammar, punctuation, and spelling. “Sic” basically means “read as it is”; [sic] indicates that the error is not yours. Note: Italicize sic. Example Miller (2001) included the following example of a “correct” paraphrase: “color can be an [sic] way to show transitions, and in this case, the painter uses it to show where fiction ends and reality begins” (p. 13). 29

30 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Direct quote: adding emphasis If you desire to stress a part of a direct quote for rhetorical purposes, italicize that part and then follow this part with the phrase “emphasis added” in brackets. Example Patterson observed that “the Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home [emphasis added], the ruined temple of Bamboozio” (p. 6). 30

31 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Citing indirect sources If you quote an author’s reference to another source, cite the original source in the signal phrase and write “as cited in” and the name of the author who cited the original source in your parenthetical citation. Example Patterson observes that “the Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home, the ruined temple of Bamboozio”(as cited in Sullivan, 1989, p. 66). Sullivan cited Patterson, and you cite Sullivan. Note that a date of publication does not follow Patterson, the original source. Including it would confuse the proper citation. 31

32 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Paraphrasing and Summarizing A paraphrase is your rendition of information from a source: write it in your own words. Start by fully understanding the information and give the reader the main point of the information you use. A paraphrase could summarize or address this main point from one sentence, such as a paragraph, a chapter, etc. Avoid repeating structure and swapping words with synonyms, but keep key terms. Use a signal phrase. Locating the reference (e.g., a page number) is not necessary in a paraphrase unless it is lengthy, such as a paraphrase that is several sentences in length. 32

33 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Example: Original source Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity,” p. 1 In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to a range of important potential contributions to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media. Unacceptable borrowing of phrases According to the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004), experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media. Why is this attempt unacceptable? Continued  33

34 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Original source: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2004, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity,” p. 1 In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to a range of important potential contributions to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media. Acceptable paraphrase A report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2004) described sources other than media for the childhood obesity crisis. Why is this sentence acceptable? Example: Hacker, D. (2008). Rules for Writers (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford. See page

35 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Summaries Use a signal phrase in the first sentence. Paraphrase information, and end the summary with a parenthetical citation. Example Carmona (2004) advised a Senate subcommittee that the problem of childhood obesity is dire and that the skyrocketing statistics—which put the child obesity rate at 15%—are cause for alarm. More than 9 million children, double the number in the early 1980s, are classified as obese. Carmona warned that obesity can cause myriad physical problems that only worsen as children grow older (para. 6). Example: Hacker, D. (2008). Rules for Writers (6 th ed.). New York, NY: Bedford. See page

36 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Avoid dropped quotations! Dropped quotes are direct quotes that are not introduced properly. Example: Imagine this direct quote is incorporated into your paragraph as is without a signal phrase. This is not acceptable. “The Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home, the ruined temple of Bamboozio” (Patterson & Quixote, 2009, p. 6). A correct introduction of a direct quote: use a signal phrase Patterson and Quixote (2009) observed that “the Bamboozle monkeys did not tolerate human trespassers within the confines of their adopted home, the ruined temple of Bamboozio” (p. 6). 36

37 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References to sources must have RELEVANCE!!! Do not just incorporate references to sources in a way that leaves a reader to imply or to assume connections between what you say and what an author of a source says. Be able to discuss connections. Do not just plug a phrase or sentence into a paragraph for the sake of having a reference. (References add evidence and support.) As a reader or a writer, ask yourself, “What is the logical connection, here?” Example of a correct incorporation of a reference Even ancient civilizations designed architectural spaces to augment a person’s public presence. In ancient Greece, the Athenians built a theater in the Pnyx Hill for political meetings. The fan-shaped theatre, as Sennett (1994) describes, “is a tight design, organizing the crowd in vertical rows, magnifying the lone voice below, exposing the speaker to all, his every gesture visible” (p. 60). The augmentation of visibility and voice in this space... Source: Sennet, R. (1994). Flesh and stone: The body and the city in western civilization. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. 37

38 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Why should you avoid dropped quotations?!?! Someone could argue that you allow another person’s ideas to express or to conclude what you need to say in your course work. Using a signal phrase helps to contextualize quotations in your work. Remember that quotations amplify, complement, support, and contribute to what we say in our course work; they do not perform the work for us. 38

39 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Tables An unbreakable rule in table formatting is to make it as easy as possible for readers to understand at a glance the nature of the information you are presenting. Include only essential data in your table. Give every table a brief but clear and explanatory title. Each table should be identified by a number, in the order that they appear in the text (e.g., Table 1, Table 2, etc.). When using a table, you need to refer to the table in the text (e.g., "As shown in Table 1...") and point out to the reader what they should be looking for in the table. Ensure that your table can be understood apart from the text. Define every abbreviation and explain any quirks in a table note, not the narrative. Position table entries that are to be compared next to each other. 39

40 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Tables Once you have finished your table, where it goes in the manuscript depends on what sort of manuscript you have written. – If you have written a dissertation or report for class, check with your dissertation committee or professor. – Many educators prefer to have tables placed in text at approximately the place the tables are mentioned, and they certainly get the final say on table placement when they are doing the grading! 40

41 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Appendices Appendices allow you to include detailed information in your paper that would be distracting in the main body of the paper. Examples of items you might have in an appendix include mathematical proofs, lists of words, a questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc. If you have more than one appendix, title them appendices and give them a designation (e.g. Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) Make sure to refer to all appendices in the text, e.g., “See interview guide in Appendix A.” 41

42 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References 42 The general format of a reference page includes the following: – The word “References” should appear centered at the top of the page. – Maintain double-spacing throughout. – References are listed alphabetically. – If your reference carries over onto multiple lines, all subsequent lines are indented ½ inch. – Only include references that you have cited in the text unless your professor asks you for a bibliography (which is a list of all works consulted).

43 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References 43

44 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References Books Edited Books Journal Articles Online Journal Articles Newspaper Web Page Government Reports Films 44

45 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References Books Author, A. A. (YEAR). Title of work. Location: Publisher. Edited Books Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (YEAR). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx – xxx). Location: Publisher. 45

46 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References Journal Articles Author, A.A., & Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (YEAR). Title of article: Optional extended title. Title of Periodical, 1(2), Online Journal Articles Author, A.A., Author, B.B., & Author, C.C. (YEAR). Title of article: Optional extended title. Title of Periodical, 1(2), doi: /

47 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References Newspapers Author, A. (YEAR, Month #). Title of article, can include commas. Name of Newspaper, pp. A1, A4. Web Page Author, A. (YEAR, Month #). Heading on website: Optional extended title. Retrieved from 47

48 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References Corporate Author, Government Report U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (YEAR). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No ). Retrieved from Film Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B.B. (Director). (YEAR). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio. 48

49 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills References No personal communication is included in your reference list; instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the phrase "personal communication," and the date of the communication in your main text only. – This includes interviews, s, class lectures, and other personal communications. When your paper includes a reference with no known author, include a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. If your resource does not have an identifiable publication date, place (n.d.) in place of the date field of any reference.

50 Promoting Excellence in Graduate Studies © 2012, California State University, Dominguez Hills Good Web sources for APA (available on the PEGS website) Purdue’s OWL: Bedford St. Martins: Cornell University Library: LEO: Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT): University of Richmond’s Writing Center: University of Wisconsin (APA demo): 50


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