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Canadian Business English Fifth Edition Mary Ellen Guffey Patricia Burke PowerPoint by Vaska Tumir © 2008 by Nelson Education Ltd.

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Presentation on theme: "Canadian Business English Fifth Edition Mary Ellen Guffey Patricia Burke PowerPoint by Vaska Tumir © 2008 by Nelson Education Ltd."— Presentation transcript:

1 Canadian Business English Fifth Edition Mary Ellen Guffey Patricia Burke PowerPoint by Vaska Tumir © 2008 by Nelson Education Ltd.

2 Chapter 14 Conjunctions to Join Equals

3 Objectives  Distinguish between simple and compound sentences  Punctuate compound sentences joined by and, or, not, and but  Punctuate compound sentences using conjunctive adverbs such as therefore, however, and consequently  Punctuate sentences using interrupting adverbs such as therefore, however, and consequently  Recognize correlative conjunctions such as either... or, neither... nor, and not only... but also  Use parallel constructions in composing sentences with correlative conjunctions 3 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

4 Conjunctions to Join Equals Conjunctions grammatically join equal or unequal words or word groups. Coordinating Conjunctions  … connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical value or rank  Most common are and, or, but, and nor. 4 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

5 Coordinating Conjunctions  Join words This car is fast, comfortable, and economical.  Join phrases Mail used to be delivered in the morning and in the afternoon.  Join clauses Ms. Weber is our marketing director, but Mr. Hills steps in for her when necessary. 5 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

6 Example  We interviewed three applicants, and we decided to hire Mr. Jones. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 6

7 Coordinating Conjunctions  Simple sentences have one independent clause that can stand alone. Rita designed the database. subject + verb + object = clause ^period  Compound sentences have two or more independent clauses. Rita designed the database, and Steve entered data. subject + verb + object = clause 1 subject + verb + object = clause 2 7 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

8 Example  Salaries begin at $35,000 annually, and they can reach over $70,000. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 8

9 Coordinating Conjunctions Punctuating Compound Sentences  When coordinating conjunctions join clauses as in compound sentences, a comma precedes the conjunction (unless the clauses are very short)., CompuTech offers many software options for small businesses, but it has nothing for larger organizations. We called yesterday and we wrote today. 9 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

10 Example  Wanda wants to buy this printer, but she is waiting for a sale. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 10

11 Example He will visit the construction site, or he will go to the architect’s office. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 11

12 Coordinating Conjunctions Omitting Commas  Do not use commas when coordinating conjunctions join compound verbs or verbs with a common subject. We can help you improve your office skills and enhance your career in a very short time. She’s asked them to respond ASAP and reminded them of the approaching deadline. 12 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

13 Is this correct?  The bank will notify you of each transfer, or will send you a monthly statement. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 13

14 Coordinating Conjunctions Omitting Commas  Do not use commas when coordinating conjunctions join compound prepositional phrases. You may come to our downtown headquarters or to one of our suburban branch offices. Heather will revise the report with me and with Kathleen. 14 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

15 Where would you place a comma, if needed? 1.Our industrial designers are working on ways to improve our products and to continue to enhance your comfort. No commas are needed: compound verbs. 2.We appreciate your interest in our services and we are sending you the information you requested., We appreciate your interest in our services, and we are sending you the information you requested. (two clauses) 3.Wrap it carefully and mail it immediately. No comma needed: very short clauses. 4.We can immediately install a system to meet your current needs or design one that will grow with your company. No commas are needed: compound verbs. Check your skill Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

16 Review Conjunctions  Join words – more than 2 – use comma  Join phrases – no comma  Join clauses – use comma with compound sentences except when there is a common subject or it is coordinating two prepositional phrases  Simple sentences – no comma Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 16

17 Conjunctive Adverbs  Conjunctive adverbs may also be used to join equal sentence elements.  These are the most common ones. consequently hencein fact however thusin the meantime thereforethen moreover on the contrary that is on the other hand 17 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

18 Conjunctive Adverbs Using Semicolons and Commas  Semicolons are used before conjunctive adverbs that join independent clauses. ; First, Nadia Latour was honoured ; then Katie Rowan received an award.  Except for then, thus, hence, all conjunctive adverbs are followed with a comma. ;, Our supplier is going out of business ; therefore, we must locate a substitute supplier immediately. 18 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

19 Punctuate: Today’s job market is very competitive however recent graduates can find jobs if they are well trained and persistent. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 19

20 Punctuate: Personnel professionals spend little time reading a cover letter therefore it is wise to keep your letter short. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 20

21 Interrupting Adverbs Using Commas  Many words that function as conjunctive adverbs may also serve as interrupting adverbs.  Use commas to set off adverbs that interrupt the flow of a sentence.,, We are, therefore, compelled to turn to another delivery firm.,, You may, on the contrary, prefer a laptop.,, She did, in fact, request an extension on the project. 21 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

22 Correlative Conjunctions  Certain conjunctions, usually used for emphasis, are always paired: both... and not only... but (or but also) either... or neither... nor Your new schedule will be posted on Friday or on Monday. Your new schedule will be posted either on Friday or on Monday. 22 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

23 Correlative Conjunctions  Place correlative conjunctions so that the words and phrases being joined are parallel in construction. Not parallel: Either you may work in this office or in the office next door. in this officein the office next door Parallel: You may work either in this office or in the office next door. prepositional prepositional phrase phrase Not parallel: We neither have the time nor the resources to pursue this. Parallel: We have neither the time nor the resources to pursue this. 23 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

24 Other Coordinating Conjunctions  The most commonly used coordinating conjunctions are and but or nor  Three other coordinating conjunctions are yet for so Chris said she planned to join us, yet she hasn’t called. Filling the new position won’t be easy, for few applicants have the necessary editing skills. 24 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

25 Other Coordinating Conjunctions  As a coordinating conjunction, the word so should be used only in informal writing or conversation. Informal: We haven’t reached our goals this quarter, so we’ll have to readjust our projections for this year. Formal: We haven’t reached our goals this quarter; therefore, we’ll have to readjust our projections for this year. 25 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

26 review  Conjunctive adverbs  Independent clauses require semicolon  Comma after conjunctive adverbs of more than one syllable  Interrupting adverbs (use commas) Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 26

27 Add the punctuation:  The company is planning nevertheless to proceed with its expansion.  This organization on the other hand is quite small in the industry  Stationary and supplies are stored on open shelves however printed forms are kept in filing cabinets.  The manager has consequently requested a leave of absence. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 27

28 Are these parallel?  We have neither the energy to pursue this litigation, nor do we have the finances.  You may either write a research report, or a book report can be made.  The website contains both information, and it has an application form. Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition 28

29 Chapter 14 - Quiz Which punctuation mark(s) that should precede and/or follow the indicated word(s)? 1.This new administrative package will cost more money consequently we can expect our overall expenditures to increase. ;,;,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 29 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

30 Chapter 14 - Quiz Which punctuation mark(s) that should precede and/or follow the indicated word(s)? 2.The board of directors proposes to expand benefits hence the employees union plans to recommend accepting the offer. ;,;,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 3. Our new office furniture has been ordered and should arrive from Montreal in two weeks’ time. ;,;,,,none a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 30 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

31 Chapter 14 - Quiz Which punctuation mark(s) that should precede and/or follow the indicated word(s)? 4.We suffered losses last year on the other hand indications suggest increased income this year. ;,,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 5.The president said moreover that she expects the increased income to result in higher profits. ;,;,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 31 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

32 Chapter 14 - Quiz Which punctuation mark(s) that should precede and/or follow the indicated word(s)? 7.Sue’s salary in her new position is low but she thinks the potential for growth is great.,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 8.I like this winter coal but can’t afford a new one just yet. ;,;,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 32 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

33 Chapter 14 - Quiz Which punctuation mark(s) that should precede and/or follow the indicated word(s)? 9.We need many different kinds of stationery consequently I have placed several orders.,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 10.He ordered the stationery weeks ago yet none has arrived to date. ;,;,,, a. ;, b. ; c., d.,, e. none 33 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition

34 Conjunctions to Join Equals END 34 Canadian Business English, Fifth Edition


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