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“Punctuate me!”, pleaded the string of words, ever so desperate to turn into a prince sentence. Punctuation 101 for senior students Miss Elliott 28 April.

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Presentation on theme: "“Punctuate me!”, pleaded the string of words, ever so desperate to turn into a prince sentence. Punctuation 101 for senior students Miss Elliott 28 April."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Punctuate me!”, pleaded the string of words, ever so desperate to turn into a prince sentence. Punctuation 101 for senior students Miss Elliott 28 April 2014

2 PUNCTUATION MATTERS Try reading the text below… Argh!!

3 ChangeChange the punctuation to change the meaning 1: Woman without her man is nothing. 2: The man dropped, the bullet in his mouth. 3: Watch out – man-eating apes! 4: We order merchandise and sell the products. 5: When I sing well, ladies feel sick. 6: You will be required to work twenty four-hour shifts.

4 Commas What are they good for? (not absolutely nothing!)(not absolutely nothing!) We use commas to: [Brainstorm] They are used slightly differently in the UK and US UK, Canada, Australia, NZ (UK + ‘Commonwealth’) US (think ‘more is more’) Whether you choose US or UK-style, just be consistent.

5 Commas: do’s and don’ts Don't use commas around restrictive elements. The novel Naked Lunch was banned from the school library. NOT The novel, Naked Lunch, was banned from the school library. Don't separate subject from verb with a comma. The girl in the window is not my sister. NOT The girl in the window, is not my sister. Don't separate a verb and a direct object or complement with a comma. I saw immediately the mistake I had made. NOT I saw immediately, the mistake I had made. When your sentence includes paired elements—for example, with correlative conjunctions—don't use a comma to separate them. I wanted either a trip to Europe or a new BMW. NOT I wanted either a trip to Europe, or a new BMW. If you are unsure about adding a comma, check the rules. If the answer isn't there, trust your ear to tell you when a pause is important.

6 In your own words… For most the year is already finished. For most, the year is already finished. Outside the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches. Outside, the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.

7 Academic review of ‘serial commas’ Issue 1: ambiguity “She will invite her parents, Miss Kate and Pitbull to Khuvsgul.” = ambiguous! Are Miss Kate & Pitbull her parents? “She will invite her parents, Miss Kate, and Pitbull to Khuvsgul”. = there are 4 guests. Miss Kate and Pitbull are not her parents. Usually, UK: “Kate, Rhonda and Jane” Harvard comma “Kate, Rhonda, and Jack” Oxford comma “Kate, Joy, and Jack”

8 Issue 2: Wanting to join sentences A comma only indicates a pause in a sentence; it can not join sentences without the addition of a coordinating conjunction. these two sentences (below), whilst grammatically correct, would read better if joined. The people followed their own leader. They were willing to die for him. REMEMBER: a comma indicates a pause, not a link. Comma + coordinating conjunction The people followed their own leader, and they were willing to die for him. (US) The people followed their own leader and they were willing to die for him. (UK) The people followed their own leader; they were willing to die for him. See: Using the Semi-colon and Colon Semi-colon?Colon?

9 And - ; -. We are happy; the sun is shining and birds are singing. We are happy because the sun is shining… We are happy. The sun is shining – and the birds are singing!

10 Using colons The role of the colon is simple: to introduce. Andrew whispered in his ear: “Haven’t you got a PhD?” We knew who would be first in the race: speedy Steve. There are three countries beginning with Z: Zaire, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The nightclub played many different types of music: rock, hip-hop, contemporary jazz, indie and even soul.

11 Using semi-colons I watched that new film about Giraffes; I didn’t like it. I watched that new film about Giraffes. I didn’t like it. / I watched that new film about Giraffes and I didn’t like it. I did not catch the bus home; instead, I decided to walk. Jonny Thunder thought his new song was the band’s best yet; however, all the other band members disagreed.

12 Getting tricky with it You can use the semicolon to separate the items in a list where a comma is already being used. Some of the examples below also use a colon as well as a semicolon.colon The band members were: Jonny Thunder, lead guitar; Filthy Pedro, vocals; Nathan Kidd, drums; and Jack Beako, bass guitar.

13 To ‘,’ or not to ‘,’ Double ("...") and single ('...') quotation marks or inverted commas (you can use either term) can be used in the same ways. Whether you use double or single is up to you. You could use double for quotations and single for titles. This is what we do in Writing for University Courses. It can help the reader to see which are quotes and which are titles. Whatever you do you must be consistent, i.e. do it all the way through your piece of work. This is partly because it looks better, but also to avoid the reader being confused. The following describes two main ways in which to use quotation marks/inverted commas. For advice about a further use, see the Development Level.

14 Same words, different punctuation (1-2) Dear Mother, In law, there is nothing to make me say thank you, but the quality of your gifts compels me at least to write to tell you how I feel. Thank you so much for the presents! I was expecting nothing more than a token yet, again, you have exceeded even your own incredible standards. It was a shame you had to stay here for such a short time. I thought I might have coped, but it was unbearable seeing you leave. The relief was immense when I heard we might see you again soon. I wanted to end it all by saying goodbye now. I hope I will not have to say it to you again for a long time. If you have the opportunity to spend Christmas elsewhere next year, please do not. Much love Matthew

15 Take 2-2: Dear Mother-in-Law, There is nothing to make me say thank you, but the quality of your gifts compels me at least to write to tell you how I feel. Thank you? So much for the presents I was expecting. Nothing more than a token, yet again! You have exceeded even your own incredible standards. It was a shame you had to stay here. For such a short time, I thought I might have coped, but it was unbearable. Seeing you leave, the relief was immense. When I heard we might see you again soon, I wanted to end it all. By saying goodbye now, I hope I will not have to say it to you again for a long time. If you have the opportunity to spend Christmas elsewhere next year, please do. Not much love Matthew

16 Same, same, but different? (1-2) Dear Mandy, Just a quick note to say I received your gift - I was very surprised! When I saw the effort you had gone to I nearly cried. When I heard that you were coming for our roast turkey lunch I looked forward to the Christmas day celebration far more. Disdaining others no doubt spending the festive season feeling drunk, with joy we sang the classic yuletide carols. However, the horror on the streets tonight - revelers ignore the message of Christmas and down pints instead - I wish I could be there to help them. Clair.

17 2-2 Dear Mandy, Just a quick note to say I received your gift - I was very surprised when I saw the effort you had gone to. I nearly cried when I heard that you were coming for our roast turkey lunch. I looked forward to a Christmas day celebration far more disdaining. Others no doubt spending the festive season feeling drunk with joy - we sang the classic yuletide carols, however. The horror. On the streets tonight revelers ignore the message of Christmas and down pints instead. I wish I could be there to help them. Clair

18 Oh dear… Dear Aunt Agatha, Sorry it has taken me so long to write telling you how much I liked your Christmas present this year, only I didn't have the time. To take it back and get another would be out of the question! I suppose for you to be so kind shouldn't come as a surprise after what you bought me last year. It was splendid! News about Uncle Brian? Dying to see you again in the New Year. Would be awful to lose touch. Mark

19 (2-2) Dear Aunt Agatha, Sorry it has taken me so long to write telling you how much I liked your Christmas present this year, only I didn't. Have the time to take it back and get another? Would be out of the question, I suppose, for you to be so kind. Shouldn't come as a surprise after what you bought me last year. It was splendid news about Uncle Brian dying. To see you again in the New Year would be awful. To lose touch, Mark

20 Say what? Dear Santa, You really made my year! When I heard you had fallen from your sleigh, I was sad. To see such wonderful gifts lined up under my Christmas tree, my eyes lit up. When I unwrapped your gifts I knew that the spirit of Christmas was still alive. It was terrible hearing about your accident. The best piece of news all year is your safe return. Things yet to come, you say! Christmas is a time to love and share, I disagree with Scrooges. Everywhere Christmas is slowly fading. Thanks for making it so fantastic. Matt

21 Santa (2-2) Dear Santa, You really made my year when I heard you had fallen from your sleigh! I was sad to see such wonderful gifts lined up under my Christmas tree. My eyes lit up when I unwrapped your gifts. I knew the spirit of Christmas was still alive - it was terrible. Hearing about your accident? The best piece of news all year. Is your safe return a sign of things yet to come? You say Christmas is a time to love and share, I disagree. With Scrooges everywhere, Christmas is slowly fading. Thanks for making it so. Fantastic. Matt.

22 Come again? Dear Auntie Maude, I was amazed to receive yet again the perfumed soap you've compelled me to appreciate for three straight Christmases! That my family had suffered due to my body odour, I felt such delight. I took the soap to the bathroom. I normally enter only once each July, not that I wish to. Wash? Never! Could a mere gift change that? No! Your stubbornness fuelled my resolve. To drive my body to the soapy unknown, my family have sued me for cruelty, and threatened random hose attacks. I cannot allow that water and skin should meet. With dignity intact! Rob

23 (2-2) Dear Auntie Maude, I was amazed to receive yet again the perfumed soap. You've compelled me to appreciate, for three straight Christmases, that my family had suffered due to my body odour. I felt such delight, I took the soap to the bathroom I normally enter only once each July! Not that I wish to wash. Never could a mere gift change that. No, your stubbornness fuelled my resolve to drive my body to the soapy unknown. My family have sued me for cruelty, and threatened random hose attacks. I will not allow that. Water and skin should meet with dignity intact. Rob

24 Check your comma know-how

25 QUIZ TIME! Quiz (US commas)

26 Answer What does the comma troll say?

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28 Answer

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45 Further Reading on commas language/2011/may/19/mind-your-language-punctuation-quotations https://www.haverford.edu/writing-center/files/commas.pdf guides/comma

46 ‘linking words’

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