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DIBELS™ Training Institute: Essential Workshop Day 1 Foundations of DIBELS Introduction to Administration and Scoring Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Initial.

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Presentation on theme: "DIBELS™ Training Institute: Essential Workshop Day 1 Foundations of DIBELS Introduction to Administration and Scoring Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Initial."— Presentation transcript:

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2 DIBELS™ Training Institute: Essential Workshop Day 1 Foundations of DIBELS Introduction to Administration and Scoring Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Initial Sounds Fluency Letter Naming Fluency Logistics of Assessment

3 DIBELS™ Training Institute: Essential Workshop Module 1 Foundations of DIBELS

4 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 3 Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS™)

5 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 4 Dynamic Measurement Group (DMG)

6 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 5 Objectives Understand conceptual and research foundations of DIBELS. Be familiar with early reading research. Identify Big Ideas of early literacy and reading. Be aware of how to use DIBELS in an Outcomes-Driven Model of educational decision making.

7 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 6 Components of an Effective School-wide Literacy Model Adapted from Logan City School District, 2002 Curriculum and Instruction Assessment Literacy Environment and Resources Student Success 100% of Students will Read

8 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 7 Research on Early Literacy: What Do We Know? 120 Reading Trajectory for Second-Grade Reader

9 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 8 Middle and Low Trajectories for Second Graders Words Per Minute 17 Students on a Middle Reading Trajectory 19 Students on a Low Reading Trajectory Grade

10 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 9 Reading Trajectories of Low and Middle Readers Grades 1-6 Grade Words Per Minute Middle 10% Low 10% Grade 1 Cohort Grade 2 Cohort Grade 3 Cohort Grade 4 Cohort Grade 5 Cohort

11 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 10 Nonreader at End of First Grade 15 words correct per minute with 68% accuracy My uncle, my dad, and my brother and I built a giant sand castle. Then we got out buckets and shovels. We drew a line to show where it would be.

12 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 11 Reader at End of First Grade My uncle, my dad, and my brother and I built a giant sand castle at the beach. First we picked a spot far from the big waves. Then we got out buckets and shovels. We drew a line to show where it would be. It was going to be big! We all brought buckets of wet sand to make the walls. 58 words correct per minute with 95% accuracy

13 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group Words per Minute at the End of First Grade Puts Children on Trajectory to Reading Words Per Minute Year Months Grade

14 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 13 Summary: What Do We Know? Reading trajectories are established early. Readers on a low trajectory tend to stay on that trajectory. Students on a low trajectory tend to fall further and further behind. UNLESS…

15 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 14 …We DO Something: We CAN Change Trajectories. How? Identify students early. Focus instruction on Big Ideas of literacy. Focus assessment on indicators of important outcomes.

16 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 15 Identify Students Early: Need for DIBELS™ Words Per Minute Grade

17 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 16 Relevant Features of DIBELS™ l Measure Basic Early Literacy Skills: Big Ideas of early literacy l Efficient and economical l Standardized l Replicable l Familiar/routine contexts l Technically adequate l Sensitive to growth and change over time and to effects of intervention

18 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 17 What Are DIBELS™? D 98.6 I B E L S ynamic ndicators asiciteracy arly kills of

19 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 18 Height and Weight are Indicators of Physical Development: Vital Signs

20 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 19 How Can We Use DIBELS™ to Change Reading Outcomes? Begin early. Focus instruction on the Big Ideas of early literacy. Focus assessment on outcomes for students.

21 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 20 Begin Early: How Early?

22 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 21 The Bottom Line Children enter school with widely discrepant language/literacy experiences. –Literacy: 1,000+ hours of exposure to print versus 0-10 (Adams, 1990) –Language: 2,153 words versus 616 words heard per hour (Hart & Risley, 1995) –Confidence Building: 32 Affirmations/5 prohibitions per hour versus 5 affirmations and 11 prohibitions per hour (Hart & Risley, 1995) Need to know where children are as they enter school. “…for these children, we have not a classroom moment to waste.” (Adams, 1990, p. 90). “…go to wherever each child is and take his learning on from that point.” (Clay, 1991, p. 19).

23 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 22 Tale of Two Schools From Same School District School A: Blissful Butte 52% low risk 33% some risk 14% at risk School B: Melody Mountain 87% low risk 6% some risk 6% at risk

24 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 23 Tale of Two Classrooms From Same School Classroom 1: Mr. Frizzle AM 19/24 children (79%) are on track 5/24 children (21%) have some risk 0 children (0%) are at risk Classroom 2: Mr. Frizzle PM 8/23 children (35%) are on track 11/23 children (48%) have some risk 3/23 children (13%) are at risk

25 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 24 As a teacher, administrator, specialist, will you do anything differently with regard to –Curriculum? –Instruction? –Professional development? –Service delivery? –Resource allocation? Important to Know Where Children Start…

26 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 25 How Can We Use DIBELS™ to Change Reading Outcomes? Begin early. Focus instruction on the Big Ideas of early literacy. Focus assessment on outcomes for students.

27 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 26 Focus Instruction on Big Ideas aka Core Components, Critical Skills, Basic Early Literacy Skills Phonemic awareness Alphabetic principle Accuracy and fluency with connected text Vocabulary Comprehension - Take 30 seconds and list 5 critical skills that children need in order to learn to read …

28 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 27 What Makes a Big Idea a Big Idea? A Big Idea is –Predictive of reading acquisition and later reading achievement. –Something we can do something about, i.e., something we can teach. –Something that improves outcomes for children if/when we teach it.

29 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 28 Focus on Big Ideas Phonemic Awareness The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language. Understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds: “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/

30 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 29 Phonemic Awareness Is phonemic awareness the same thing as phonological awareness? Is phonemic awareness the same thing as phonics? a m v p s If you can do it with your eyes closed, it is phonemic awareness!

31 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 30 Focus on Big Ideas Alphabetic Principle: Based on two parts. - Alphabetic Understanding: Letters represent sounds in words. a m v p s

32 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 31 Focus on Big Ideas Alphabetic Principle –Phonological Recoding: Letter sounds can be blended together and knowledge of letter-sound associations can be used to read/decode words. a m p

33 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 32 Focus on Big Ideas Accuracy and Fluency –Automaticity with fundamental skills so that reading occurs quickly and effortlessly; e.g., driving a car, playing a musical instrument, playing a sport

34 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 33 Focus on Big Ideas Vocabulary Understanding and use of words - Ability to say a specific word for a particular meaning - Ability to understand spoken/written words

35 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 34 Focus on Big Ideas Comprehension The process of getting meaning from spoken language and/or print.

36 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 35 Which Big Idea? Child accurately and fluently reads a passage from a basal reader. Child uses a word in a sentence. Child looks at the letter “b” and says, /b/. Child says that the last sound in the word “bat” is /t/. Child answers questions about a passage he/she has read. Child looks at the word, “hat” and says, /h/…/a/…/t/…/hat/. Child says that “mouse” starts with the same sound as “muffin.” Phonemic awareness Alphabetic principle Accuracy and fluency reading connected text Vocabulary Comprehension

37 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 36 Why Focus on BIG IDEAS? Intensive instruction means teach less more thoroughly. –If you don’t know what is important, everything is. –If everything is important, you will try to do everything. –If you try to do everything you will be asked to do more. –If you do everything you won’t have time to figure out what is important.

38 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 37 Steppingstones to Literacy Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Oral Reading Fluency NonReading Reading

39 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 38 Steppingstones to Literacy Phonemic Awareness Vocabulary and Comprehension Alphabetic Principle Vocabulary and Comprehension Oral Reading Fluency Vocabulary and Comprehension NonReading Reading to Learn

40 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 39 Kame’enui, Simmons, Coyne, & Harn, 2003 Reading in an Alphabetic Language

41 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 40 More on Big Ideas

42 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 41 References Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. McCardle, P. (2004). The voice of evidence in reading research. Baltimore, MD: Brookes. National Reading Panel (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. National Research Council (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children, (Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children; C.E. Snow, M.S. Burns, and P. Griffin, Eds.) Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

43 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 42 How Can We Use DIBELS™ to Change Reading Outcomes? Begin early. Focus instruction on the Big Ideas of early literacy. Focus assessment on outcomes for students.

44 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 43 DIBELS™ Assess the Big Ideas

45 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 44 Letter Naming Fluency is an Added Indicator of Risk* DIBELS™ Measure Indicator of Risk Letter Naming Fluency *Letter Naming is not a Big Idea of early literacy; it is not the most powerful instructional target thus there are no benchmark goals nor progress monitoring materials for LNF.

46 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 45 Data on DIBELS™

47 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 46 Outcomes: DIBELS™ Benchmark Goals 80% - 100% Chance of Getting to Next Goal Initial Sound Fluency: Phoneme Segmentation Fluency: Nonsense Word Fluency: DIBELS™ Oral Reading Fluency: – 35 sounds per minute by spring Kindergarten – 25 sounds per minute by winter Kindergarten – 40 words correct per minute by spring First Grade – 50 sounds per minute by winter First Grade with at least 15 words recoded – 90 words correct per minute by spring Second Grade – 110 words correct per minute by spring Third Grade

48 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 47 Caution Children Learning to Read

49 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 48 Model of Big Ideas, Indicators, and Timeline ORF RTF Adapted from Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, Phonemic Awareness

50 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 49 How Do We Use DIBELS™? Types of Assessment Benchmark assessment –All students 3 times per year Progress monitoring –Students who need support more frequently

51 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 50 How do we Make Educational Decisions with DIBELS™? An Outcomes-Driven model: Decision-making steps designed to answer specific questions for specific purposes. Identify long term outcomes and benchmarks to achieve outcomes. 1. Identify Need for Support. 2. Validate Need for Support. 3. Plan Support Strategies. 4. Implement Support Strategies. 5. Evaluate Support. 6. Outcome Evaluation

52 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 51 Outcomes-Driven Model Identify Need for Support Validate Need for Support Plan Support Evaluate Effectiveness of Support Implement Support Review Outcomes Progress Monitoring Benchmark Assessment

53 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 52 Step 1. Identify Need for Support What do you need to know? - Are there children who may need additional instructional support? - How many children may need additional instructional support? - Which children may need additional instructional support? What to do - Evaluate benchmark assessment data for district, school, classroom, and individual children.

54 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 53 Are There Children Who May Need Additional Instructional Support? winter of Kindergarten 1/5 of students have some risk for poor reading outcomes 12% of students are at risk for poor reading outcomes 68% 20% 12% Low risk Some risk At risk

55 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 54 In January of Kindergarten: Sandra, Max, Brandon, and Danielle have a deficit on ISF and PSF. They may need additional instructional support to attain kindergarten benchmarks. Joseph and Tiffany are on track with established skills on ISF and low risk on PSF. Halley and Latisha have emerging skills on ISF and some risk on PSF and may need strategic support. T.,Sandra 0 <1 Deficit 12 7 At risk 3 3 At risk Intensive R., Max 2 1 Deficit 10 5 At risk 2 3 At risk Intensive W., Brandon 7 3 Deficit 8 3 At risk 4 4 At risk Intensive M. Danielle 8 5 Deficit 11 6 At risk 1 2 At risk Intensive A.,Halley 10 8 Emerging Low risk Some risk Strategic R., Tiffany Emerging Low risk 9 10 Some risk Strategic M., Joseph Established Some risk Low risk Benchmark M., Tiffany Established Low risk Low risk Benchmark. Identify Need: Which Children May Need Support?

56 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 55 Focus on Four Children T., Sandra3 3 Deficit R., Max2 3 Deficit W., Brandon4 4 Deficit M., Danielle1 2 Deficit PSF %ile Status

57 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 56 Step 2. Validate Need for Support What do you need to know? Are we reasonably confident the student needs instructional support? –Rule out easy reasons for poor performance: bad day, confused on directions or task, ill, shy, etc. What to do: Use additional information, e.g., other assessment data, knowledge about child. Repeat assessments.

58 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 57 Which Children Need Support? Look at the data for the four children on the following pages. Based on the data: –Which children are you reasonably confident need additional support? –Why did you select these children?

59 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 58 Validate Need for Support Verify Need for Instructional Support by Retesting with Different Forms Until We Are Reasonably Confident. Correct Phonemes January cutoff Brandon

60 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 59 Validate Need for Support Verify Need for Instructional Support by Retesting with Different Forms Until We Are Reasonably Confident. Correct Phonemes January cutoff Danielle

61 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 60 Validate Need for Support Verify Need for Instructional Support by Retesting with Different Forms Until We Are Reasonably Confident. Correct Phonemes January cutoff Sandra

62 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 61 Validate Need for Support Verify Need for Instructional Support by Retesting with Different Forms Until We Are Reasonably Confident. Correct Phonemes January cutoff Max

63 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 62 Validate Need for Support Verify Need for Instructional Support by Retesting with Different Forms Until We Are Reasonably Confident. Correct Phonemes January cutoff Sandra Brandon

64 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 63 Step 3. Plan Instructional Support What do you need to know? What are the goals of instruction? What specific skills should we teach? What instructional curriculum/program to use? What specific instructional strategies to use? How much instructional support may be needed?

65 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 64 Plan Support: What Are the Goals of Instruction? Which DIBELS™ Measure? –Initial Sound Fluency –Phoneme Segmentation Fluency –Nonsense Word Fluency –Oral Reading Fluency –Retell Fluency –Word Use Fluency Which Big Idea/Goal? –Phonemic Awareness –Alphabetic Principle –Accuracy and Fluency –Comprehension –Vocabulary/Oral Language

66 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 65 Plan Support: Aimline for Brandon The aimline connects where you are to where you want to get to, and shows the course to follow to get there. Aimline

67 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 66 Plan Support: Aimline for Sandra Correct Phonemes Aimline

68 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 67 Plan Support What specific skills, program/curriculum, strategies? –Three-tiered model of support in place: Core, Supplemental, Intervention –Use additional assessment if needed (e.g., diagnostic assessment, curriculum/program placement tests, knowledge of child). –Do whatever it takes to get the child back on track!

69 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 68 Step 4. Evaluate and Modify Support Key decision Is the support effective in improving the child’s early literacy skills? Is the child progressing at a sufficient rate to achieve the next benchmark goal? What to do Monitor child’s progress and use decision rules to evaluate data. - Three consecutive data points below the aimline indicates a need to modify instructional support.

70 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 69 Evaluate Support: Modify Instruction for Sandra? Correct Phonemes Aimline Small Group Practice

71 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 70 Evaluate Support: Modify Instruction for Brandon? Brandon: Whoops! Time to make a change! Correct Phonemes Aimline Small Group Practice Small Group Intervention

72 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 71 Evaluating Support Modify Instruction for Brandon Now? Correct Phonemes Aimline Small Group Practice Small Group Intervention

73 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 72 Outcomes-Driven Model Identify Need for Support Validate Need for Support Plan Support Evaluate Effectiveness of Support Implement Support Review Outcomes Progress Monitoring Benchmark Assessment

74 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 73 Step 5. Review Outcomes Systems Level What is a system? –Classroom, class, school, district, educational agency, region, state Key questions –How is the curriculum/program working? –Who is the curriculum/program working for? –Are we doing better this year than last year?

75 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 74 Is There a Point to This?

76 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 75 GPS On Where are we? You are Here Port Where do we want to be ? How do we get there? How are we doing? Actual Course Desired Course

77 © 2005c, Dynamic Measurement Group 76 DIBELS™ are the GPS for Educators Correct Phonemes Aimline


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