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Stock Valuation 0 8

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While we value the bonds assuming ½, 1 years time difference between coupon payments, in reality the bond is traded every day. Assume a perpetuity that pays an annual coupon C with a required return of R. Show a graph that illustrates how the price of the perpetuity changes over time. 1

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Debt ◦ Not an ownership interest ◦ Creditors do not have voting rights ◦ Interest is considered a cost of doing business and is tax deductible ◦ Creditors have legal recourse if interest or principal payments are missed ◦ Excess debt can lead to financial distress and bankruptcy Equity ◦ Ownership interest ◦ Common stockholders vote for the board of directors and other issues ◦ Dividends are not considered a cost of doing business and are not tax deductible ◦ Dividends are not a liability of the firm and stockholders have no legal recourse if dividends are not paid ◦ An all equity firm can not go bankrupt merely due to debt since it has no debt 2

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Understand how stock prices depend on future dividends and dividend growth Be able to compute stock prices using the dividend growth model Understand how corporate directors are elected Understand how stock markets work Understand how stock prices are quoted 3

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If you buy a share of stock, you can receive cash in two ways ◦ The company pays dividends ◦ You sell your shares, either to another investor in the market or back to the company As with bonds, the price of the stock is the present value of these expected cash flows 4

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Suppose you are thinking of purchasing the stock of Moore Oil, Inc. and you expect it to pay a $2 dividend in one year and you believe that you can sell the stock for $14 at that time. If you require a return of 20% on investments of this risk, what is the maximum you would be willing to pay? ◦ Compute the PV of the expected cash flows 5

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Now what if you decide to hold the stock for two years? In addition to the dividend in one year, you expect a dividend of $2.10 in two years and a stock price of $14.70 at the end of year 2. Now how much would you be willing to pay? 6

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Finally, what if you decide to hold the stock for three years? In addition to the dividends at the end of years 1 and 2, you expect to receive a dividend of $2.205 at the end of year 3 and the stock price is expected to be $ Now how much would you be willing to pay? 7

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You could continue to push back the year in which you will sell the stock You would find that the price of the stock is really just the present value of all expected future dividends –why? 8

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Constant dividend ◦ The firm will pay a constant dividend forever ◦ This is like preferred stock ◦ The price is computed using the perpetuity formula Constant dividend growth ◦ The firm will increase the dividend by a constant percent every period Supernormal growth ◦ Dividend growth is not consistent initially, but settles down to constant growth eventually 9

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Suppose stock is expected to pay a $0.50 dividend every quarter and the required return is 10% with quarterly compounding. What is the price? 10

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Suppose Big D, Inc. just paid a dividend of $.50. It is expected to increase its dividend by 2% per year. If the market requires a return of 15% on assets of this risk, how much should the stock be selling for? 11

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Suppose TB Pirates, Inc. is expected to pay a $2 dividend in one year. If the dividend is expected to grow at 5% per year and the required return is 20%, what is the price? 12

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13 D 1 = $2; R = 20%

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14 D 1 = $2; g = 5%

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Gordon Growth Company is expected to pay a dividend of $4 next period and dividends are expected to grow at 6% per year. The required return is 16%. What is the current price? 15

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1. What is the price expected to be in year 4? 2. What is the implied return given the change in price during the four year period? 16

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Suppose a firm is expected to increase dividends by 20% in one year and by 15% in two years. After that dividends will increase at a rate of 5% per year indefinitely. If the last dividend was $1 and the required return is 20%, what is the price of the stock? Remember that we have to find the PV of all expected future dividends. 17

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What is the value of a stock that is expected to pay a constant dividend of $2 per year if the required return is 15%? What if the company starts increasing dividends by 3% per year, beginning with the next dividend? The required return stays at 15%. 18

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Suppose a firm’s stock is selling for $ They just paid a $1 dividend and dividends are expected to grow at 5% per year. What is the required return? What is the dividend yield? What is the capital gains yield? 19

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Voting Rights Proxy voting Classes of stock Other Rights ◦ Share proportionally in declared dividends ◦ Share proportionally in remaining assets during liquidation ◦ Preemptive right – first shot at new stock issue to maintain proportional ownership if desired 21

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Dividends are not a liability of the firm until a dividend has been declared by the Board Consequently, a firm cannot go bankrupt for not declaring dividends Dividends and Taxes ◦ Dividend payments are not considered a business expense; therefore, they are not tax deductible ◦ The taxation of dividends received by individuals depends on the holding period and specific country rules. 22

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Dividends ◦ Stated dividend that must be paid before dividends can be paid to common stockholders ◦ Dividends are not a liability of the firm and preferred dividends can be deferred indefinitely ◦ Most preferred dividends are cumulative – any missed preferred dividends have to be paid before common dividends can be paid Preferred stock generally does not carry voting rights 23

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Dealers vs. Brokers New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) NASDAQ 24

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There are a many websites that provide real- time quote information. The most popular are Bloomberg, Google Finance, and Yahoo Finance. What type of information can we gather? 25

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You observe a stock price of $ You expect a dividend growth rate of 5% and the most recent dividend was $1.50. What is the required return? What are some of the major characteristics of common stock? What are some of the major characteristics of preferred stock? 26

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1. XYZ stock currently sells for $50 per share. The next expected annual dividend is $2, and the growth rate is 6%. What is the expected rate of return on this stock? 2. What price is expected a year from now? 3. If the required rate of return on this stock were 12%, what would the stock price be, and what would the dividend yield be? 27

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28 Suppose a stock has just paid a $5 per share dividend. The dividend is projected to grow at 10% for the next two years, then 8% for one year, and then 6% indefinitely. The required return is 12%. What is the stock’s value?

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IPO stands for initial public offering. Important players - SEC, Auditors (accounting firms), Underwriters Due-diligence process The “road show” and setting the offering price Google – a unique example. 29

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Net Present Value and Other Investment Criteria 30 9

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31 Capital Budgeting Decision ◦ Suppose you had the opportunity to buy a tbill which would be worth $400,000 one year from today. Interest rates on tbills are a risk free 7%. ◦ What would you be willing to pay for this investment? $400,000 / (1.07) = $373,832 PV today: 012 -$400,000

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32 Capital Budgeting Decision ◦ You would be willing to pay $ 373,832 for a risk free $400,000 a year from today. ◦ Suppose this were, instead, an opportunity to construct a building, which you could sell in a year for $400,000 (guaranteed). ◦ Since this investment has the same risk and cash flows as the tbill, it is also worth the same amount to you: $373,832

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33 Capital Budgeting Decision ◦ Now, assume you could buy the land for $50,000 and construct the building for $300,000. Is this a good deal? ◦ If you would be willing to pay $ 373,832 for this investment and can acquire it for only $350,000, you have found a very good deal! ◦ You are better off by: $373,832 - $350,000 = $23,832

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34 Valuing long lived projects ◦ The NPV rule works for projects of any duration: Simply discount the cash flows at the appropriate opportunity cost of capital and then subtract the cost of the initial investment. ◦ The critical problems in any NPV problem are to determine: The amount and timing of the cash flows. The appropriate discount rate.

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We need to ask ourselves the following questions when evaluating capital budgeting decision rules ◦ Does the decision rule adjust for the time value of money? ◦ Does the decision rule adjust for risk? ◦ Does the decision rule provide information on whether we are creating value for the firm? 35

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You are looking at a new project and you have estimated the following cash flows: ◦ Year 0:CF = -165,000 ◦ Year 1:CF = 63,120 ◦ Year 2:CF = 70,800 ◦ Year 3:CF = 91,080 Your required return for assets of this risk is 12%. 36

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The difference between the market value of a project and its cost How much value is created from undertaking an investment? ◦ The first step is to estimate the expected future cash flows. ◦ The second step is to estimate the required return for projects of this risk level. ◦ The third step is to find the present value of the cash flows and subtract the initial investment. 37

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If the NPV is positive, accept the project A positive NPV means that the project is expected to add value to the firm and will therefore increase the wealth of the owners. Since our goal is to increase owner wealth, NPV is a direct measure of how well this project will meet our goal. 38

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Does the NPV rule account for the time value of money? Does the NPV rule account for the risk of the cash flows? Does the NPV rule provide an indication about the increase in value? Should we consider the NPV rule for our primary decision rule? 39

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Spreadsheets are an excellent way to compute NPVs, especially when you have to compute the cash flows as well. Using the NPV function ◦ The first component is the required return entered as a decimal ◦ The second component is the range of cash flows beginning with year 1 ◦ Subtract the initial investment after computing the NPV 40

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How long does it take to get the initial cost back in a nominal sense? Computation ◦ Estimate the cash flows ◦ Subtract the future cash flows from the initial cost until the initial investment has been recovered Decision Rule – Accept if the payback period is less than some preset limit 41

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Assume we will accept the project if it pays back within two years. ◦ Year 1: 165,000 – 63,120 = 101,880 still to recover ◦ Year 2: 101,880 – 70,800 = 31,080 still to recover ◦ Year 3: 31,080 – 91,080 = -60,000 project pays back in year 3 Do we accept or reject the project? What do you think about this decision rule. 42

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43 Payback ◦ Payback is a very poor way of determining a project’s acceptability: It often leads to nonsensical decisions. ◦ Calculate the payback and NPV for the following projects if the discount rate is 10%: a Cash Flows in Dollars Project:C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3 A-2,000+1,000+$1,000+10,000 B-2,000+1,000+$1,000 - C-2,000 -+$2,000 -

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44 Payback vs NPV … what to do? Under NPV, only project A is acceptable. B and C have negative NPV’s and are thus both unacceptable. But if your payback period is 2 years, then all the projects are acceptable. NPV and payback disagree … what is the correct answer? Project:Payback 10% A 2 $7,249 B C

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Does the payback rule account for the time value of money? Does the payback rule account for the risk of the cash flows? Does the payback rule provide an indication about the increase in value? Should we consider the payback rule for our primary decision rule? 45

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Advantages ◦ Easy to understand ◦ Adjusts for uncertainty of later cash flows ◦ Biased toward liquidity Disadvantages ◦ Ignores the time value of money ◦ Requires an arbitrary cutoff point ◦ Ignores cash flows beyond the cutoff date ◦ Biased against long- term projects, such as research and development, and new projects 46

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Compute the present value of each cash flow and then determine how long it takes to pay back on a discounted basis Compare to a specified required period Decision Rule - Accept the project if it pays back on a discounted basis within the specified time 47

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Assume we will accept the project if it pays back on a discounted basis in 2 years. Compute the PV for each cash flow and determine the payback period using discounted cash flows ◦ Year 1: 165,000 – 63,120/ = 108,643 ◦ Year 2: 108,643 – 70,800/ = 52,202 ◦ Year 3: 52,202 – 91,080/ = -12,627 project pays back in year 3 Do we accept or reject the project? 48

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Does the discounted payback rule account for the time value of money? Does the discounted payback rule account for the risk of the cash flows? Does the discounted payback rule provide an indication about the increase in value? Should we consider the discounted payback rule for our primary decision rule? 49

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Advantages ◦ Includes time value of money ◦ Easy to understand ◦ Does not accept negative estimated NPV investments when all future cash flows are positive ◦ Biased towards liquidity Disadvantages ◦ May reject positive NPV investments ◦ Requires an arbitrary cutoff point ◦ Ignores cash flows beyond the cutoff point ◦ Biased against long- term projects, such as R&D and new products 50

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