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© 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Analog Electronics Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, 07458. All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Analog Electronics Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

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2 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Analog Electronics Lecture 4:Transistors

3 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Semiconductor material and pn-junction diode P-type semiconductor N-type semiconductor PN- Junction Diode

4 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Diode and its resistive behavior R = 0 R = inf

5 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Transformative Resistor Signal controlled transformative resistor R Control signal Transformative Resistor Controlled Resistor V sup

6 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd It leads to an electronic switch Signal controlled transformative resistor R Control signal Transformative Resistor Controlled Resistor V sup How does it switch?

7 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd It leads to signal amplification Signal controlled transformative resistor R Control signal Transformative Resistor Controlled Resistor V sup How does it amplify?

8 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Constructing amplifying device A semiconductor is doped with penta and tri valent impurities to divide it into three regions. Three regions make 2 PN junctions. How does it amplify? A region called ‘Emitter’ is heavily doped as an n-type material. It has an excess of electrons in conduction band. Next to Emitter a lightly doped p-region with fewer holes is called ‘Base’ The 3 rd region is n-type and is called ‘Collector’

9 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The heavily doped n- type emitter region has a very high density of conduction-band (free) electrons. The base has a low density of holes, which are the majority carriers. These free electrons easily diffuse through the forward biased BE junction into the lightly doped and very thin p- type base region. Constructing amplifying device

10 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd A very little free electrons recombine with holes in base and move as valence electrons through the base region and into the emitter region as hole current. The valence electrons leave the crystalline structure of the base and become free electrons in the metallic base lead and produce the external base current. Majority of free electrons move toward the reverse-biased BC junction and swept across into the collector region by the attraction of the positive collector supply voltage. The free electrons move through the collector region, into the external circuit, and then return into the emitter region along with the base current. Constructing amplifying device How does it amplify? Note the junction biases for this discussion.

11 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Transistor Currents npnpnp The conventional current flows in the direction of the arrow on the emitter terminal. The emitter current I E is the sum of the collector current I C and the small base current I B. That is, I E = I C + I B. The emitter current is slightly more that collector current. How does it amplify? The voltage drop between base and emitter is V BE whereas the voltage drop between collector and base is called V CE.

12 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The collector current is directly proportional to the base current. I C ∝ I B β DC as constant of proportionality. I C = β DC I B This eq explains amplification of current. Ratio of DC collector current and DC base current. β DC = = I C /I B Ratio of DC collector current to the DC emitter current. Collector and emitter currents are ca I C = α DC I E, α DC is always less than 1 Current Relationships How does it amplify?

13 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd This is Bipolar Junction Transistor This semiconductor device with three doped regions: i.Emitter ii.Base iii.Collector And two pn junctions: npn pnp i.Base-emitter junction. ii.Base-collector junction The device is named as ‘Bipolar Junction Transistor’ or BJT Bipolar Junction Transistors

14 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd BJT Biasing In order for a BJT to operate properly, the two pn junctions must be correctly biased with external dc voltages. npn For the pnp type, the voltages are reversed to maintain the forward-reverse bias. pnp For the npn type shown, the collector is more positive than the base, which is more positive than the emitter. More about BJTs

15 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd BJT Circuit Analysis Currents and voltages in BJT I B : dc base current I E : dc emitter current I C : dc source current V BE : dc voltage at base wrt. emitter V CE : dc voltage at collector wrt. emitter. V CB : dc voltage at collector wrt. Base. V BE = 0.7V V CE = V CC – I C R C I B = (V BB – V BE ) / R B V CB = V CE – V BE

16 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The collector characteristic curves shows three mode of operations of transistor with the variation of collector current I C w.r.t V CE for a specified value of base current I B. V BB is set to produce a certain value of I B and V CC is zero and V CE is zero. BJT Collector Characteristics Curve Saturation region As V CE is increased, I C increases until B. Both BE and BC junctions are forward biased and the transistor is in Saturation region.

17 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd In saturation, an increase of base current has no effect on the collector circuit and the relation I C =  DC I B is no longer valid. I C(SAT) =V CC –V CE(SAT) /R C BJT Collector Characteristics Curve - Saturation At this point, the transistor current is maximum and voltage across collector is minimum, for a given load.

18 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Active region As V CE is increased furthers and exceeds 0.7V the base-collector junction becomes reverse-biased and the transistor goes into the active, or linear, region of its operation. I C levels off and remains essentially constant for a given value of I B as V CE continues to increase. the value of I C is determined only by the relationship expressed as BJT Collector Characteristics Curve - Linear

19 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd By setting up other values of base current, a family of collector curves is developed.  DC is the ratio of collector current to base current. It can be read from the curves. The value of  DC is nearly the same wherever it is read in active region. BJT Collector Characteristics Curve family

20 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd In a BJT, cutoff is the condition in which there is no base current, which results in only an extremely small leakage current (I CEO ) in the collector circuit. For practical work, this current is assumed to be zero. In cutoff, neither the base-emitter junction, nor the base-collector junction are forward-biased. BJT Collector Characteristics Curve –Cut off

21 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd BJT Switches A BJT can be used as a switching device in logic circuits to turn on or off current to a load. As a switch, the transistor is normally in either cutoff (load is OFF) or saturation (load is ON). In cutoff, the transistor looks like an open switch. In saturation, the transistor looks like a closed switch.

22 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd DC Load Line Here I B = 0 and V CE = V CC Here V CE = 0 and I C = I C-Sat = V CC -V CE(Sat) / R C

23 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The DC Operating Point Bias establishes the operating point (Q-point) of a transistor amplifier; the ac signal moves above and below this point. Improper biasing can cause distortion in the output signal as the transistor may go into the saturation and cutoff region.

24 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The DC Operating Point Point A,Q,B represents the Q- point for I B 400  A. 300  A and 200  A respectively. Load line The point at which the load line intersects a characteristic curve represents the Q-point for that particular value of IB. Assume a sinusoidal Ib is superimposed on VBB varying between 200uA to 400uA. It makes the collector current varies between 20 mA and 40 mA.

25 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The DC Operating Point A signal that swings outside the active region will be clipped. For example, the bias has established a low Q- point. As a result, the signal is will be clipped because it is too close to cutoff.

26 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Voltage-Divider Bias A practical way to establish a Q-point is to form a voltage- divider from V CC. R 1 and R 2 are selected to establish V B. If the divider is stiff, I B is small compared to I 2. Then, Determine the base voltage for the circuit V I2I2 IBIB

27 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Voltage-Divider Bias A practical biasing technique that utilize single biasing sources instead of separate V CC and V BB. A dc bias voltage at the base of the transistor can be developed by a resistive voltage divider that consists of R1 and R2

28 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd DC Load Line What is the saturation current and the cutoff voltage for the circuit? Assume V CE = 0.2 V in saturation mA 15 V Is the transistor saturated? I C =  I B = 200 (10.45  A) = 2.09 mASince I C < I SAT, it is not saturated.

29 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd DC and AC Quantities The text uses capital letters for both AC and DC currents and voltages with rms values assumed unless stated otherwise. DC Quantities use upper case roman subscripts. Example: V CE. (The second letter in the subscript indicates the reference point.) AC Quantities and time varying signals use lower case italic subscripts. Example: V ce. Internal transistor resistances are indicated as lower case quantities with a prime and an appropriate subscript. Example: r e ’. External resistances are indicated as capital R with either a capital or lower case subscript depending on if it is a DC or ac resistance. Examples: R C and R c.

30 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The FET The idea for a field-effect transistor (FET) was first proposed by Julius Lilienthal, a physicist and inventor. In 1930 he was granted a U.S. patent for the device. His ideas were later refined and developed into the FET. Materials were not available at the time to build his device. A practical FET was not constructed until the 1950’s. Today FETs are the most widely used components in integrated circuits.

31 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The JFET The JFET (or Junction Field Effect Transistor) is a normally ON device. The n-channel is connected with two leads i.e. Drain and Source Two p-type regions are diffused in n-type material and both connected to gate.

32 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The JFET Construction For the n-channel device, when the drain is positive with respect to the source and there is no gate-source voltage, there is current in the channel. When a negative gate voltage is applied to the FET, the electric field causes the channel to narrow, which in turn causes current to decrease.

33 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The JFET-Symbol and biasing The symbol for an n-channel JFET is shown, along with the proper polarities of the applied dc voltages. For an n-channel device, the gate is always operated with a negative (or zero) voltage with respect to the source. Gate Source Drain

34 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd JFET Biasing Self-bias is simple and effective, so it is the most common biasing method for JFETs. With self bias, the gate is essentially at 0 V. An n-channel JFET is illustrated. The current in R S develops the necessary reverse bias that forces the gate to be less than the source. Assume the resistors are as shown and the drain current is 3.0 mA. What is V GS ? = +12 V 1.5 k  330  1.0 M  V G = 0 V; V S = (3.0 mA)(330  ) = 0.99 V V GS = 0 – 0.99 V =  0.99 V

35 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The metal oxide semiconductor FET uses an insulated gate to isolate the gate from the channel. Two types are the enhancement mode (E-MOSFET) and the depletion mode (D-MOSFET). The E-MOSFET An E-MOSFET has no channel until it is induced by a voltage applied to the gate, so it operates only in enhancement mode. An n- channel type is illustrated here; a positive gate voltage induces the channel. E-MOSFET

36 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd The D-MOSFET has a channel that can is controlled by the gate voltage. For an n-channel type, a negative voltage depletes the channel; and a positive voltage enhances the channel. The D-MOSFET A D-MOSFET can operate in either mode, depending on the gate voltage. D-MOSFET operating in D-modeoperating in E-mode

37 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd MOSFET symbols are shown. Notice the broken line representing the E-MOSFET that has an induced channel. The n channel has an inward pointing arrow. The MOSFET n channel p channel DD G G SS E-MOSFETs n channel p channel DD G G SS D-MOSFETs

38 © 2012 Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ, All rights reserved. Electronic Devices, 9th edition Thomas L. Floyd Thank You


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