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WJ III Training Use and Interpretation of the Tests of Cognitive Abilities.

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Presentation on theme: "WJ III Training Use and Interpretation of the Tests of Cognitive Abilities."— Presentation transcript:

1 WJ III Training Use and Interpretation of the Tests of Cognitive Abilities

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3 Multiple factor view of intelligence General, Broad, and Narrow Abilities Carroll’s Three-Stratum Theory (1993) g General Intelligence Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence GfGc Broad Auditory Perception Broad Retrieval Ability Broad Cognitive Speediness GaGlrGs General Memory & Learning Broad Visual Perception Gv Gsm Narrow Abilities (70 currently identified) General Broad Narrow

4 Broad (II) Gf-Gc Abilities Subsume Narrow (I) Abilities: Gf Example

5 COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE Stores of Acquired Knowledge (Gc, Gq, Grw) Stores of Acquired Knowledge (Gc, Gq, Grw) Cognitive Efficiency (Gsm, Gs) Cognitive Efficiency (Gsm, Gs) Facilitator-Inhibitors (Internal, External) Facilitator-Inhibitors (Internal, External) Thinking Abilities (Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf) Thinking Abilities (Glr, Gv, Ga, Gf) Cognitive Performance Model BE CAREFUL USING THIS MODEL

6 The breadth and depth of knowledge of a culture The ability to communicate one’s knowledge (especially verbally) The ability to reason using previously learned knowledge or procedures Originally described as “crystallized intelligence” Tests comprising this cluster: Verbal Comprehension General Information Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc)

7 Comprehension Knowledge Gc Lexical Knowledge (VL) General Information (K0) Language Development (LD) Listening Ability (LS) General Information Verbal Comprehension Academic Knowledge Oral Comprehension Picture Vocabulary © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

8 Requires naming pictured objects, providing synonyms or antonyms, and solving analogies 4 subtests: Picture Vocabulary, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Verbal Analogies (no derived scores) Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 3 lowest correct / 3 highest incorrect Use Suggested Starting Points Clusters GIA, BIA Verbal Ability Comprehension-Knowledge Predicted Achievement Broad Ability Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) Narrow Abilities Language Development (LD) Lexical Knowledge (VL) COG 1 Verbal Comprehension

9 Requires answering questions presented orally 2 subtests: Where and What (no derived scores) Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to each subtest: 4 lowest correct / 4 highest incorrect Know correct pronunciation of all items Clusters GIA Verbal Ability Comprehension-Knowledge Knowledge Broad Ability Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) Narrow Ability General (verbal ) Information (KO) NEW COG 11 General Information

10 Ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later through association Associative storage & retrieval Length of intervening time is not critical feature Not to be confused with acquired stores of knowledge (Gc and Gq) Tests comprising this cluster: Visual-Auditory Learning Retrieval Fluency Long-Term Retrieval (Glr)

11 Visual Auditory Learning & Delayed Recall Associative Memory (MA) Retrieval Fluency Ideational Fluency (FI) Naming Facility (NA) Glr Long-Term Retrieval Meaningful Memory (MM) Memory for Names & DR Rapid Picture Naming Story Recall- Delayed © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

12 Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Long-Term Retrieval Predicted Achievement Broad Ability Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) Narrow Ability Associative Memory (MA) Controlled learning task, corrective feedback Requires recalling verbal labels for visual symbols presented in various combinations Begin with Introduction 1 for all subjects Discontinue testing when cutoff is met Score based on number of errors COG 2 Visual-Auditory Learning

13 Broad Ability Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) Narrow Ability Associative Memory (MA) Changed to relearning task with corrective feedback Administer 30 minutes to 8 days after Test 2 VAL Score based on number of errors Begin with Line 1 for all subjects Administer all lines (items) to all subjects Synonyms & no response are errors Clusters Delayed Recall COG 10 Visual Auditory Learning - Delayed

14 Requires naming as many items in a category as possible in one minute (60 is maximum per item) 3 items: things to eat or drink, first names, animals Administer all items to all subjects 1-minute time limit for each item Do not count duplicate responses Do not ask subject to repeat Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Long-Term Retrieval Cognitive Fluency Broad Ability Long-Term Retrieval (Glr) Narrow Ability Ideational Fluency (FI) NEW COG 12 Retrieval Fluency

15 Requires quickly naming pictured objects in a row of 5 Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects 2-minute time limit Accept synonyms as correct (e.g., kitty for kitten) Do not accept responses that are similar but not synonyms (e.g., glass for cup) Clusters Cognitive Fluency Broad Ability Processing Speed (Gs) Narrow Abilities Naming Facility (NA) NEW COG 18 Rapid Picture Naming

16 Ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize and think with visual patterns Ability to store and recall visual representations Fluent thinking with stimuli that are visual in the “mind’s eye” Tests comprising this cluster: Spatial Relations Picture Recognition Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv)

17 Spatial Relations (SR) Visualization (Vz) Visual Memory (MV) Spatial Scanning (SS) Closure Speed (CS) Gv Visual-Spatial Thinking Planning Picture Recognition Spatial Relations Visual Closure Block Rotation © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

18 Broad Ability Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) Narrow Abilities Visualization (Vz) Spatial Relations (SR) Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Visual-Spatial Thinking Predicted Achievement Requires selecting the component shapes to construct a whole Multiple points possible per item (0, 1, 2, 3) Begin with Introduction for all subjects Discontinue testing when cutoff is met COG 3 Spatial Relations

19 Requires identifying 1-4 previously seen items Begin with samples and Item 1 for all subjects Discontinue testing when cutoff is met Stimulus is shown for only 5 seconds Score 1 point for each picture recalled in any order Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Visual-Spatial Thinking Broad Ability Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) Narrow Ability Visual Memory (MV) COG 13 Picture Recognition

20 Ability to analyze, synthesize, & discriminate auditory stimuli Ability to perceive and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under distorted conditions Does not require comprehension of language Tests comprising this cluster: Sound Blending Auditory Attention Auditory Processing (Ga)

21 Phonetic Coding: Analysis (PC:A) Sound Blending Phonetic Coding: Synthesis (PC:S) Auditory Attention Speech Sound Discrimination (US) Resistance to Auditory Stimulus Distortion (UR) Ga Auditory Processing Incomplete Words Word Attack Spelling of Sounds Sound Patterns © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

22 Requires identifying & pronouncing words that are presented as a stream of individual sounds Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect Words must be pronounced smoothly Do not repeat any items during test Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Auditory Processing Phonemic Awareness Predicted Achievement Broad Ability Auditory Processing (Ga) Narrow Ability Phonetic Coding (PC) COG 4 Sound Blending

23 Requires detecting differences in sounds as background noises increase in volume Begin with training items (1-57) presented orally Administer samples and then Item 1 to all subjects Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect Use recording for all test items Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Auditory Processing Broad Attention Broad Ability Auditory Processing (Ga) Narrow Abilities Speech Sound Discrimination (US) Resistance to Auditory Stimulus Distortion (UR) NEW COG 14 Auditory Attention

24 Clusters Phonemic Awareness Broad Ability Auditory Processing (Ga) Narrow Ability Phonetic Coding (PC) Requires identifying & pronouncing words presented with one or more phonemes missing Begin with Sample A (Pre) or Sample B (K and up) Ceiling: 6 consecutive highest items incorrect Word must be pronounced as a complete word COG 8 Incomplete Words

25 Ability to reason, form concepts, & solve problems (using unfamiliar information or novel procedures) Basic reasoning processes (minimal effect of learning & acculturation) Manipulating abstractions, rules, logical relations Tests comprising this cluster: Concept Formation Analysis-Synthesis Fluid Reasoning (Gf )

26 Analysis- Synthesis General Sequential Reasoning ( RG) Concept Formation Induction (I) Quantitative Reasoning (RQ) Speed of Reasoning (RE) Gf Fluid Reasoning Decision Speed? Applied Problems Quantitative Concepts Number Series Number Matrices © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

27 Broad Ability Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Narrow Ability Induction (I) Clusters GIA, BIA Thinking Ability Fluid Reasoning Executive Processes Predicted Achievement Controlled learning task, corrective feedback Requires identifying & stating the rule governing a set of colored geometric figures Begin with Introduction 1 (Pre-Grade 1) or Introduction 2 (Grade 2 and up) Discontinue testing when cutoff is met COG 5 Concept Formation

28 Requires analyzing the components of an incomplete logic puzzle and identifying the missing component(s) Controlled learning task, corrective feedback (1-28) Begin with Color Pretest and then Introduction Discontinue testing when cutoff is met Items 26-35, 1-minute time limit for each Clusters GIA Thinking Ability Fluid Reasoning Broad Ability Fluid Reasoning (Gf) Narrow Ability General Sequential Reasoning (RG) COG 15 Analysis-Synthesis

29 Ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly when measured under pressure to maintain focused attention Attentive speediness Usually measured by tasks that require rapid cognitive processing but little thinking Tests comprising this cluster: Visual Matching Decision Speed Processing Speed (Gs)

30 Visual Matching Perceptual Speed (P) Pair Cancellation Rate-of-test Taking (R9) Decision Speed Semantic Processing Speed (R4) Gs Processing Speed Cross Out © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

31 Ages 2-4 Version 1 (in Test Book) Requires pointing to 2 pictures that are the same in row 2-minute time limit Ages 5 and up Version 2 (in Test Record) Requires quickly circling two identical numbers in row of 6 3-minute time limit Broad Ability Processing Speed (Gs) Narrow Ability Perceptual Speed (P) Clusters GIA, BIA Cognitive Efficiency Processing Speed Predicted Achievement COG 6 Visual Matching

32 Requires marking the 2 of 7 objects in a row that go together or are most alike (uses SRB) Begin with samples and then Item 1 for all subjects 3-minute time limit Both pictures must be identified for credit (must be two that are most alike, not just loosely related) Scoring overlay provided Clusters GIA Cognitive Efficiency Processing Speed Cognitive Fluency Broad Ability Processing Speed (Gs) Narrow Ability Semantic Processing Speed NEW COG 16 Decision Speed

33 Ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and then use it within a few seconds Memory and learning abilities in Carroll’s model Tests comprising this cluster: Numbers Reversed Memory for Words Short-Term Memory (Gsm)

34 Memory for Words Memory Span (MS) Numbers Reversed Working Memory (MW) Gsm Short-Term Memory Auditory Working Memory Memory for Sentences © 2002 The Riverside Publishing Company.

35 Clusters GIA Cognitive Efficiency Short-Term Memory Working Memory Broad Attention Predicted Achievement Broad Ability Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Narrow Ability Working Memory (MW) Requires repeating series of random numbers backwards Items 1-10 given orally, rest from audio recording Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to groups of items: 3 lowest in group correct / 3 highest in group incorrect COG 7 Numbers Reversed

36 1. Starts with Samples C and D. 2. Continues with Item Items are correct so basal is established. (3 lowest in group correct) 4. Items are incorrect so ceiling is established. (3 highest in group incorrect) What is Number Correct? Basal/Ceiling Example

37 Requires repeating lists of unrelated words in order (ranges from one word to a series of 7 words) Basal/Ceiling Rules: 3 in group of 3 /3 in group of 3 Words must be repeated in exact order presented Accept very similar sounding or rhyming responses (e.g., son for some, bat for that) Clusters GIA Cognitive Efficiency Short-Term Memory Broad Ability Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Narrow Ability Memory Span (MS) COG 17 Memory for Words

38 Broad Ability Short-Term Memory (Gsm) Narrow Ability Working Memory (MW) Clusters Working Memory Broad Attention Requires listening to a series of words and digits intermingled, then repeating words in sequence first followed by digits in sequence Score items 2, 1, 0 (1 for words, 1 for digits) Very similar sounding or rhyming responses are scored as correct. Basal/Ceiling Rules apply to groups of items: all 3 in lowest group scored 2 / all 3 in highest group scored 0 NEW COG 9 Auditory Working Memory

39 Ability to analyze, synthesize, and manipulate sounds. Measures aspects of phonological awareness Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs PHONEMIC AWARENESS CLINICAL CLUSTER Sound Blending Incomplete Words Can be combined with Sound Awareness (ACH) for Phonemic Awareness 3 cluster Was the WJ-R Ga cluster

40 Aud Working Memory Numbers Reversed Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs WORKING MEMORY CLINICAL CLUSTER Ability to temporarily store and perform a cognitive operation on information Requires divided attention and the management of the limited capacity of short-term memory

41 Memory for Sentences (DS) Memory for Words Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs AUDITORY MEMORY SPAN CLINICAL CLUSTER Measurement of short-term memory span/capacity.

42 Memory for Names (DS) Visual- Auditory Learning Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY CLINICAL CLUSTER Measurement of learning & recall for new associations.

43 Ability to quickly and fluently perform simple to complex cognitive tasks Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs COGNITIVE FLUENCY CLINICAL CLUSTER Corresponding achievement cluster: Academic Fluency Retrieval Fluency Fluency/speed of retrieval from stored knowledge Decision Speed Fluency/speed of forming simple concepts. Rapid Pic Naming Fluency/speed of lexical (vocabulary) access/recall

44 Ability to envision patterns or objects and perceive how they may appear if altered. Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs VISUALIZATION CLINICAL CLUSTER Spatial Relations Block Rotation (DS)

45 Ability to reason with mathematical concepts. Visual- Spatial Thinking Gv Verbal Ability Gc Fluid Reasoning Gf Long-term Retrieval Glr Auditory Processing Ga Short-term Memory Gsm Processing Speed Gs NUMERICAL REASONING CLINICAL CLUSTER Number Series (DS) Number Matrices (DS)


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