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D EVELOPMENTAL C OGNITIVE D ELAYED Jodi Craven Kayla Klitzke Katie Kuffel Jason Maki Steve Wysocki.

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Presentation on theme: "D EVELOPMENTAL C OGNITIVE D ELAYED Jodi Craven Kayla Klitzke Katie Kuffel Jason Maki Steve Wysocki."— Presentation transcript:

1 D EVELOPMENTAL C OGNITIVE D ELAYED Jodi Craven Kayla Klitzke Katie Kuffel Jason Maki Steve Wysocki

2 W HY DO PROFESSIONALS USE THE TERMS INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND DCD AND HOW ARE THEY DEFINED ?

3 D EFINING THE T ERMS January 2007: AAMR (American Association for Mental Retardation)  AAID (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) Intellectual Disability: Significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18 Reflects two principles

4 D EFINING DCD Developmental Cognitive Delayed The name DCD derives from Minnesota Categorize mild, moderate and severe/profound mental retardation. Involves testing through IQ scores and adaptive skills

5 W HAT CAUSES AND CRITERIA FOR DCD?

6 C AUSES AND C RITERIA Prenatal (before birth) Chromosomal disorders Inborn errors of metabolism Developmental disorders affecting brain formation Environmental influences Perinatal (at the time of birth) Postnatal (after birth) Biological Psychosocial

7 W HAT IS THE PREVALENCE OF DCD?

8 P REVALENCE Debate between 2.7 and 1.0 prevalence Fig. 5.1.

9 W HAT ARE THE METHODS OF ASSESSMENT FOR DCD?

10 IQ T ESTS Mild (IQ of 50 to 70) Moderate (IQ of 35 to 50) Severe (IQ of 20 to 35) Profound (IQ of 20 and less)

11 C AUTIONS T HAT N EED TO B E C ONSIDERED An individual’s IQ score can change All IQ tests are culturally biased to some extent The younger the child, the less valid the results A person’s ability to live a successful and fulfilling life does not depend only on his or her IQ score

12 A DAPTIVE BEHAVIOR PROCEDURES Intelligence that allows people to function in their everyday lives Intellectual functioning Usually involve a parent, teacher, or other professional. Social intelligence Practical intelligence

13 A DAPTIVE B EHAVIOR Ability to understand and interpret people and social interactions. Able to “read” people, or not being gullible or easily manipulated Ability to solve everyday problems Preparing meals, using transportation systems, using the internet Social IntelligencePractical Intelligence

14 A DDITIONAL F ACTORS Assessments must also assume that limitations in individuals often coexist with strength. Level of life functioning will improve if appropriate personalized supports are provided over a sustained period.

15 AAIDD’ S L EVELS OF S UPPORT Integral to the AAIDD’S conceptualization of intellectual disabilities Intermitted (as-needed basis) Limited (time-limited, but not of an intermittent nature) Extensive (regular involvement) Pervasive (consistent, high-intensity involvement)

16 W HAT ARE SOME OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNERS WITH DCD?

17 M AJOR A REAS I NTELLECTUAL D ISABILITIES L IKELY E XPERIENCE D EFICITS Attention Harder to learn Can cause learning wrong things Difficultly allocating attention properly Memory Problem with working memory Language Limitations in language comprehension and production Exact problems dependent on cause of intellectual disability

18 M AJOR A REAS I NTELLECTUAL D ISABILITIES L IKELY E XPERIENCE D EFICITS Self-Regulation Difficulties with Metacognition Motivation Experience with failure can cause belief they have little control over what happens to them Social Development Difficult to intercept social interactions Gullible

19 L INKING G ENETIC S YNDROME TO B EHAVIORAL P HENOTYPES Four Genetic syndromes Down syndrome Williams syndrome Fragile X syndrome Prader-Willi syndrome Table 5.2 (pg. 161)

20 W HAT CAN WE DO AS TEACHERS FOR LEARNERS WITH DCD?

21 W HAT CAN WE DO ? Equal Curriculum General Education Curriculum Functional Academics Relating material to things they will do everyday Systematic Instruction Explicit directions Reinforce instructions with gestures Modeling the task

22 W HAT CAN W E D O ? Instruction in Real-Life settings Grocery shopping! Ordering in a restaurant Checks at the Bank FBA Safe environment for all learners What is causing the problem? PBIS Creating a plan to stop disruptive behavior Delivery Model Changing how a lesson is delivered Peer tutoring

23 H OW DO PROFESSIONALS ASSESS STUDENTS WITH DCD?

24 ASSESSING PROGRESS OF STUDENTS WITH DCD Progress Monitoring Curriculum based measurement Academic Skills Adaptive Behavior Skills Quality of Life Alternate Assessment Accommodate struggling students Schedules Presentation Response format

25 W HAT ARE SOME THINGS TO CONSIDER WITH RESPECT TO EARLY INTERVENTION AND TRANSITION TO ADULTHOOD FOR LEARNERS WITH DCD?

26 A SSESSMENT OF S TUDENTS WITH DCD Alternate Assessments Alternative for students who may not be able to be tested with traditional methods. Testing Accommodations Includes modifications in scheduling, presentation format, and response formats.

27 P HILOSOPHY FOR DCD C URRICULUM Educational planning is student centered, every student has the right and ability to learn Every individual is unique, take into account student needs, strengths, interests, cultural and ethnic variables, learning styles, and backgrounds. Teaching is a team effort. Support from students, parents, teachers, paraprofessionals, support staff, and administration is needed to facilitate a learning environment. Team collaboration is essential when designing an educational plan (IEP) unique to their student

28 P HILOSOPHY FOR DCD C URRICULUM CONT. Assessment and intervention are related and ongoing. Assessment of a student current levels of ability needs to be both quantitative and qualitative.

29 I NTEGRATING M INNESOTA G RADUATION S TANDARDS AND DCD Teachers job to identify gaps in curriculum for students with DCD and then identify and/or create curriculum aligned with the MN graduation standards Teachers survey determined areas of the greatest need regarding curriculum and instruction for these targeted populations i. Community Participation ii. Home Living/Daily Living iii. Recreation and Leisure

30 I NTEGRATING M INNESOTA G RADUATION S TANDARDS AND DCD CONT. Community Participation General Shopping/Grocery Shopping Personal and Pedestrian Safety Restaurant Skills Home Living/Daily Living Cooking Health and Safety Hygiene Nutrition

31 I NTEGRATING M INNESOTA G RADUATION S TANDARDS AND DCD CONT. Recreation and Leisure Indoor Leisure Indoor Recreation Outdoor Leisure Outdoor Recreation

32 C REATING A L EARNING C ONTINUUM Reflects the wide range of skills of students with mild to significant cognitive disabilities. Aligns these skills or performance indicators with pertinent core areas. These core learning areas and three performance levels used in the current MN alternate assessment were used to create the framework for the integrated learning continuum and these skills inventories which then align with the IEP and instructional activities created by a collaborative team.

33 V IDEOS I Am Sam ature=related ature=related I Have A Voice


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