Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Community Detection Algorithm and Community Quality Metric Mingming Chen & Boleslaw K. Szymanski Department of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Community Detection Algorithm and Community Quality Metric Mingming Chen & Boleslaw K. Szymanski Department of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Community Detection Algorithm and Community Quality Metric Mingming Chen & Boleslaw K. Szymanski Department of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

2 Community Structure  Many networks display community structure  Groups of nodes within which connections are denser than between them Community detection algorithms Community quality metrics

3 Two Related Community Detection Topics  Community detection algorithm  LabelRank: a stabilized label propagation community detection algorithm  LabelRankT: extended algorithm for dynamic networks based on LabelRank  A new community quality metric solving two problems of Modularity M. E. J. Newman, 2006; Newman and Girvan, Xie, Chen, and Symanski, Xie and Symanski, 2013.

4 LabelRank Algorithm  Four operators applied to the labels  Label propagation operator  Inflation operator  Cutoff operator  Conditional update operator Question: NP=P ? Node 1: No; Node 2: No; Node 3: No; Node 4: Yes. P 1 (No)=3/4; P 1 (Yes)=1/4. Node 1: No. No Yes 97 P 1 (No)=3/100; P 1 (Yes)=97/100. Node 1: Yes.

5 Label Propagation Operator  where W is the n x n weighted adjacent matrix. P is the n x n label probability distribution matrix which is composed of n (1 x n) row vectors P i, one for each node  Each element P i (c) holds the current estimation of probability of node i observing label, where C is the set of labels (here, suppose C={1, 2, …, n})  Ex. P i =(0.1, 0.2, …, 0.05, …)  To initialize P, each node is assigned a distribution of probabilities of all incoming edges

6 Label Propagation Operator  Each node receives the label probability distribution from its neighbors and computes the new distribution P 3 = (0.25, 0, 0.25, 0, 0, 0, 0.25, 0.25, 0, 0) P 2 = (0.25, 0.25, 0, 0, 0.25, 0.25, 0, 0, 0, 0)P 4 = (0.25, 0, 0, 0.25, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0.25, 0.25) P 1 = (0.25, 0.25, 0.25, 0.25, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) P 1 = (0.25, 0.125, 0.125, 0.125, , , , , , )

7 Inflation Operator  Each element P i (c) rises to the in th power:  It increases probabilities of labels with high probability but decreases that of labels with low probabilities during label propagation. P 1 = (0.25, 0.125, 0.125, 0.125, , , , , , ) P 1 = (0.129, , , , , , , , , )

8 Cutoff Operator  The cutoff operator on P removes labels that are below the threshold with the help from Inflation Operator that decreases probabilities of labels with low probabilities during propagation.  efficiently reduces the space complexity from quadratic to linear. P 1 = (0.129, , , , , , , , , ) P 1 = (0.129) With r = 0.1, the average number of labels in each node is less than 3.

9 Conditional Update Operator  At each iteration, it updates a node i only when it is significantly different from its incoming neighbors in terms of labels: where is the set of maximum probability labels at node i at the last step. returns 1 if and 0 otherwise. k i is the node degree and q ∈ [0,1].  isSubset can be viewed as a measure of similarity between two nodes.

10 Effect of Conditional Update Operator

11 Running time of LabelRank  O(Tm): m is the number of edges and T is the number of iterations. LabelRank is a linear algorithm

12 Performance of LabelRank

13 LabelRankT  It is a LabelRank with one extra conditional update rule by which only nodes involved changes will be updated. Changes are handled by comparing neighbors of node i at two consecutive steps, and.

14 Two Problems of Modularity Maximization  Split large communities  Favor small communities  Resolution limit problem  Modularity optimization may fail to discover communities smaller than a scale even in cases where communities are unambiguously defined.  This scale depends on the total number of edges in the network and the degree of interconnectedness of the communities.  Favor large communities Fortunato et al, 2008; Li et al, 2008; Arenas et al, 2008; Berry et al, 2009; Good et al, 2010; Ronhovde et al, 2010; Fortunato, 2010; Lancichinetti et al, 2011; Traag et al, 2011; Darst et al, 2013.

15 Modularity  Modularity (Q): the fraction of edges falling within communities minus the expected value in an equivalent network with edges placed at random  Equivalent definition M. E. J. Newman, Newman and Girvan, 2004.

16 Modularity with Split Penalty  Modularity (Q): the modularity of the community detection result  Split penalty (SP): the fraction of edges that connect nodes of different communities  Q s = Q – SP: solving the problem, favoring small communities, of Modularity

17 Q s with Community Density  Resolution limit: Modularity optimization may fail to detect communities smaller than a scale  Intuitively, put density into Modularity and Split Penalty to solve the resolution limit problem  Equivalent definition

18 Example of Two Well-Separated Communities Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

19 Example of Two Weakly Connected Communities Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

20 Ambiguity between One and Two Communities Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

21 Ambiguity between One and Two Communities Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

22 Example of One Well Connected Community Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

23 Example of One Very Well Connected Community Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community

24 Example of One Complete Graph Community Quality on a complete graph with 8 nodes Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community0000

25 Modularity Has Nothing to Do with #Nodes

26 5-clique Example Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 30 communities communities ∆Q s =( )= > ∆Q=( )=0.0121

27 Thanks! Q & A

28 Example of Two Weakly Connected Communities Modularity (Q)Split Penalty (SP)Q s = Q – SPQ ds 2 communities community


Download ppt "Community Detection Algorithm and Community Quality Metric Mingming Chen & Boleslaw K. Szymanski Department of Computer Science Rensselaer Polytechnic."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google