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Using HOURS to evaluate KM3NeT designs A.Leisos, A. G. Tsirigotis, S.E.Tzamarias In the framework of the KM3NeT Design Study VLVnT Athens, 15 October 2009

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CORSIKA (Extensive Air Shower Simulation) All Flavor Neutrino Interaction Events (Secondary Particles Generation) Atmospheric Muon Generation from CORSIKA GEANT4 (KM3NeT Detector Description and Simulation) GEANT4 (Muon Propagation to KM3NeT) Optical Noise, PMT response and Electronics Simulation Prefit & Filtering Algorithms Muon Reconstruction EAS detector Simulation Shower direction reconstruction The HOURS software chain Flow Chart SeaTop Calibration Neutrino Telescope Performance

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Point Source Sensitivity for E -2 source flux (100GeV-100PeV) Atmospheric Muon background (CORSIKA files – 1 hour lifetime) + Atmospheric Neutrino Background (bartol flux) signal Sensitivity 1 year of observation 67 meters maximum abs. length, 60m optical photon scattering length Estimation of sensitivitty errors (0.02~0.04 in the following results)

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20m 30m 40m 50m 100m,130m,180m,210m Horizontal layout Vertical layout 20 OMs 300 strings SeaWit neutrino telescope configuration

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Multi PMTOptical Module 31- 3inch multi PMT OM housed in a 17inch benthos sphere 35%Maximum Quantum Efficiency NIKHEF Parametrization for PMT angular acceptance ( cos(θ)) 7KHz of K 40 optical noise

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Results 1 Vertical (between OMs) distance fixed at 30m Point Source sensitivity vs distance between strings Distance between strings (m) -60 degrees declination No flux cutoff Flux cutoff at 100TeV

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Results 1 Vertical distance fixed at 30m m2m2 Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Angular resolution (median) degrees Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Neutrino Effective area Quality cuts corresponding to the sensitivity limit 100m horizontal distance 130m horizontal distance 180m horizontal distance 210m horizontal distance

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Results 2 Horizontal distance fixed at 130m Point Source sensitivity vs distance between OMs Distance between OMs (m) -60 degrees declination No flux cutoff Flux cutoff at 100TeV

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Results 2 Horizontal distance fixed at 130m m2m2 Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Angular resolution (median) degrees Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Neutrino Effective area Quality cuts corresponding to the sensitivity limit 20m vertical distance 30m vertical distance 40m vertical distance 50m vertical distance

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Results 3 Horizontal distance 130m Vertical Distance 40m Point Source sensitivity vs source declination NO ATMOSPHERIC MUON BACKGROUND

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30m 100m,130m,180m,210m Horizontal layout Vertical layout 20x3 OMs 300 towers 6m SeaWiet with extended horizontal structures

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Results 4 Vertical distance fixed at 30m Point Source sensitivity vs distance between towers Distance between towers (m) -60 degrees declination No energy cutoff SeaWiet with extended horizontal structure SeaWiet without extended horizontal structure

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m2m2 Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Angular resolution (median) degrees Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Neutrino Effective area Quality cuts corresponding to the sensitivity limit Results 4 Vertical distance fixed at 30m 100m horizontal distance 130m horizontal distance 180m horizontal distance 210m horizontal distance

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Tower GeometryFloor Geometry 45 o Small NuOne: 91 Towers in a hexagonal grid, seperated by 130m. 20 floors each Tower. 30m between floors. Bar length 8m Detectors Single PMT Optical Module 10 inch PMT housed in a 17inch benthos sphere 35%Maximum Quantum Efficiency Genova ANTARES Parametrization for OM angular acceptance 75KHz of K 40 optical noise

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Results 5 Depth effect SimWiet with 300 strings Source declination (degrees) Small NuOne at 3500m depth Small NuOne at 4800m depth Point Source sensitivity vs source declination

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Results 5 Depth effect Neutrino Effective area m2m2 cos(θ)

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m2m2 Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Angular resolution (median) degrees Neutrino Energy (log(E/GeV)) Neutrino Effective area Quality cuts corresponding to the sensitivity limit Results 5 Depth effect

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KM3NeT neutrino telescope configurations with different detector components, geometries and deployment depths have been studied with the HOU Reconstruction & Simulation (HOURS) software package. KM3NeT physics performance was evaluated as the detector sensitivity to cosmic neutrino fluxes. The neutrino effective area and angular resolution of the reconstructed muons were also determined and compared. Conclusions

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