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Personality Tests Observe and describe the structure and content of personality – the characteristic ways an individual thinks, feels, behaves, and interacts.

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Presentation on theme: "Personality Tests Observe and describe the structure and content of personality – the characteristic ways an individual thinks, feels, behaves, and interacts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Personality Tests Observe and describe the structure and content of personality – the characteristic ways an individual thinks, feels, behaves, and interacts Clarifies Diagnoses Problematic patterns of behavior Intra and interpersonal dynamics Treatment implications Can be objective or projective

2 Measuring Personality & Psychological Functioning
Objective testing Specific questions or statements to which the person responds by using specific, fixed answers or a rating scale Scores tabulated and compared to reference groups Projective testing Ambiguous or unstructured stimuli to which client is asked to respond freely. Unconscious or conscious needs, motives, interests, dynamics are projected onto ambiguous stimuli revealing internal dynamics or personality More challenging to score and interpret than objective

3 Objective Tests Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; MMPI-2) Millon Multi-Axial Inventory III (MCMI-III) 16 Personality Factors (16PF) NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI)

4 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory- 2
Introduction and Overview

5 History MF and Si added later (items increased to 566)
First published in 1943 by Hathaway and McKinley Designed for routine diagnostic assessments Empirical keying approach 504 statements 724 Minnesota”normals” and 221 psychiatric patients Originally 8 clinical scales plus validity scales MF and Si added later (items increased to 566)

6 History (cont.) inadequate original standardization sample
Revised version is the MMPI-2 (1989) inadequate original standardization sample concerns about item content objectionable items not broad enough to assess certain characteristics like suicide and drug abuse Separate forms for adolescents and adults 567 true/false items Normative sample (MMPI-2) 2600 U.S. residents aged (census derived) Test retest ranges from Originally 504, added repeat items and Masculine Feminine Scale and social introversion 1989 retained format but altered or added/deleted some items Item content - drop the handkerchief sleeping powders, street cars All 550 of the original MMPI items retained in adult and adolecent versions but 14% of original were revised because of antiquated/awkward klearning

7 History MMPI-2 Yields individual’s clinical profile compared with the normative sample Much of research on interpretation from MMPI applies to MMPI-2 Most frequently used personality test in the US for adults and adolescents


9 MMPI-2/MMPI-A Original 10 clinical/personality scales and original 3 validity scales and added 4 validity measures Additional options: Content scales Harris-Lingoes subscales Supplementary scales Critical items Item content – content Subscales for clnical/personality based on clusters of content-related items – H&L Assessment of items and item clusters that relate to relevant behavior – critical Empirically derived new scales - supplementary

10 Administration and Scoring
Administered individually or in groups not a “take home” test computerized version available Administration time is approximately 1 to 1.5 hours Scored by hand or computer Must be interpreted by qualified professionals For use with individuals 18 years and older Can break test session up into shorter segments MMPI-2 for 18-year-olds who are in college, working or living independently Can also be read or use of standardized audio tape there is a standardized spanish version Many resourtces aavauilable in multicultural issues and the mMPISchinka et al 1998, Butcher - Interbnational adaptations of MMPI2 adaptations - China, Israel, Pakistan, Soutrh africa, chili mexico Japan bpossible to use it with year-olds but need adolescent norms

11 Administration and Scoring (cont.)
If only standard scales are required - administer first 370 items many supplementary scales are not available unless you give all 567 items If hand scoring use scoring key appropriate to individual’s gender Use the K correction for this class Interpretation is configural in nature and not dependent on any one scale

12 Multicultural Issues and the MMPI-2
African Americans tend to score higher on scales F, 8 and 9 Male Latinos scored higher on scale 5 than European American males mean difference of less than 5 T score points All mean differences among groups are less than 5 T score points and moderators variables appear to explain the variance in performance More the role of moderator variables like efuatio, income, age and type of pathology Some difference in forensic populations may be menaingful - exampe - high cynicism, antisocial practices in AA vs EA criminals - discrimination? = Future reserahc is needed to look at degree of identifictaion with ethin group, language fluencey, perceived minority status and degree of discrimination also more needed on content and supplemntary scales

13 Tips on instructions Augment the standard instructions with:
Reason for testing and how results will be used Test is designed to determine if someone is presenting themselves in an overly positive or negative manner so it is best to be as honest as possible Some questions may seem unusual because the test is designed to assess individuals with a wide range of personality styles and symptoms If an item does not apply to an individual, indicate with a true or false response and try not to leave any questions blank.

14 Validity Scales ? Scale (Cannot say) F scale (Infrequency)
number of items left unanswered If 30 or more items are left unanswered the protocol is invalid F scale (Infrequency) 66 items atypical or deviant response style endorsed by less than 10% of the population accompanied by high scores on clinical scales general indicator of pathology or “faking bad.” Example - “I like to visit places I’ve never before” false It would be better if almost all laws were thrown away” true Factor analysis - diverse characteristics like paranoid thinking, antisocial attitudesor behavior, hostility, poor physical health test taking attitude and deviant reposne sets generate inferences about extratest characterics and ehaviros

15 F scale (cont.) No exact cutoff for suspecting an invalid profile
T scores of are common among prison, inpatient populations Extreme elevations indicate invalid profile 100 or higher More liberal cutoff for adolescents on MMPI-A Moderate elevation can indicate an openness to unusual experiences and psychopathology MMPI-A - 20% of adolescents endorsed the items normal adults - male = 95, female = 99 psych pats = 120 males 119 females MMPI-A = 79+ ingeneral suggests malingering, exaggeration of difficulties, resistance to testing or significant levels of pathology unconventional or unusual thoughts, rebellious, antisocial - may be a cry for help low scores - cleint perceives world as others do - if there is pathology they may be denying difficulties - faking good

16 Validity Scales (cont.)
Lie (L) Scale 15 items extent to which client is “faking good” or describing self in an overly positive manner Uneducated, lower SES will score higher Average number of endorsed items is 3 T Scores of 65 or above are suspect and indicate profile should not be interpreted High scores may lead to lower scores on clinical scales Minor flaws to which most would admit ‘ False to “I get angry sometimes High scores suggest overly conventional, socially conforming, rigid and moralistic - little or no insught low - responsded frankly - T < 50 self confident enough ot admit flaws - perceptive socially repsonsive, self-relaint, strong, relaxed - can be diaviant and over critical - esp if K is low and F is high”

17 Validity Scales (cont)
K scale(30 items) More subtle and sophisticated index of “faking good” or “faking bad” T scores above 65 or 70 are higher than expected Higher scores indicative of ego defensiveness and guardedness Persons from lower SES and educational backgrounds score somewhat lower on K Persons of higher intelligence and psychological sophistication may score high on K and low on L K scores are inversely related to Scales 8,7 and 0 K correction is added to five of the clinical scales Suppresses clinical sclaes Elevation is suggestive of person attemtping to present self in an overly favorable light or deny difficulties or anwered false to everything (nay saying0 - or if valid - prent image of being in control, functioning well, overlooking faults - poor insight and resist psych eval - ability to benefit from therapy limited - typical defense is denial moderate mod level of defensiveness, positive qualities like independent, self reliant, good ego strength moderate in adolescents = low poss of acting out low - suggest a fake bad profiel - exaggeration of pathology - all tru protocol - in valid profile may be disorented or confused, self critical, cynacal inadequate defenses among adolescents not uncommon and reflect greater openness and sensitivity f

18 Validity scales (cont.)
Variable Response Inconsistency Scale (VRIN) An additional validity indicator developed for MMPI-2 Measures tendency to respond inconsistently to MMPI-2 items 47 pairs of items with similar or opposite content In general, raw score greater than 13 (T>80) indicates inconsistent responding Useful when examined along with F scale True Response Inconsistency Scale (TRIN) To identify an all true (acquiescence) or all false (non acquiescence) response style 20 pairs of items that are opposite in content Raw scores range from 0 to 23 Higher TRIN (T> 80 in true direction) tendency to give true responses indiscriminately lower TRIN (T > 80 in false direction) tendency to give false responses indiscriminately Each time person answers inconsistently a point is added Completely random response set produces a T score on VRIN of 96 for men and 98 for women all tru or all false repsonse set yileds a T score near 50 people who fake bad or endorse psychotathology will get averahge scores high F and High VRIn = random responding high F and low or moderate VRIN no random responding or confusion - severely disturbed or attemtping to look like it. All true or all false almost alwatys leads to high F and average VRIN

19 Clinical Scales Scale 1. Hypochondriasis (Hs)
personality characteristics consistent with a diagnosis of hypochondriasis high concern with illness and disease complain about a variety of physical problems and attempt to manipulate/ control others with complaints egocentric, immature, pessimistic, sour, whiny and passive aggressive critical of others express hostility inwardly Elderly produ8ce higher scores - real pohysical problesm ahave T scopres around 60 real high scores = dramatic or bizzare concerns - if scle three also elevated - conversion disorder posible chronic pain patients may have high scores on 1 & 3 moderate vague, nonspecific complaints chroonic poain, headaches, GI discomfort - chronci wekaness, fatigueg MMPI_A- relevant for adolescents but also suggest school-related difficulties Girls experience family problmes (marital disagreements, financial concerns ) and eating disorders Elevations on this sclae are rare among adolescents

20 Scale 2: Depression (D) Items related to brooding, physical slowness, subjective feelings of depression, mental apathy, physical malfunctioning High scorers (T>70) report feelings of depression, sadness, feeling blue, unhappiness, dysphoria, hopelessness about future Display behaviors like lack of energy, anhedonia, crying, psychomotor retardation Tend to be self critical, withdrawn, aloof Patients seeking inpatient care often have Scale 2 as highest point Single best predictor of person’s satisfaction, sense of security, comfpor age is an impirtant factor - adolescents score 5 to 10 points lower than nonpat aduilts elderly score 5 to 10 points higher neurottic triad wqhen 1,2 and 3 are elevated - wide variety of compaints not hjust depression moderate elevations on 2 and 7 are good for therapy elevation on 2 raises possibility of suicide esp tru if very high and if elevations on 4,7,8, and/or 9 look at critical itemst High adolescent scores on 2 suggest school related difficulties and arguments with parents – less likley to act out – girls more likley to ghave eating problems, somatic complaints andlow self-esteem Intrapersonally introverted with few friendsfis

21 Scale 3 : Hysteria (Hy) To identify patients who have hysterical reactions to stress Person who often feels overwhelmed and avoids responsibility by developing physical symptoms Physical symptoms worsen with increased stress May report headaches, stomach discomfort, chest pains, weakness with no organic cause Have symptoms that appear and dissappear suddenly Do not report experiencing emotional turmoil and have an exaggerated degree of optimism Higher scores = exaggeration of denial, somatization, dissociation, immaturity, naïvete, low levels of insight Traits consistent with histrionic personlaity - demand affection and social support but do so indirectly socially uninhibited and higly visible relationships are easuily made but dsuperficial approach aothers in a naïve and self centered mannert herterogebnous in its content - HL are useful here frequently found with elevations on 1 and 2 If K is also elevated person is likely to be inhibited, affiliative, overconcevetional - exaggerated need to be approved of and liked - high score here reduceds liklehood person is psychotic even if 6 and 8 are high moderate score may have good sadjustment Adolescents – questionable bvalidity with teens – HL subsclaes help clarify - females likley to have somatic complaints in reponse to stress Males more likely to have both school problems and hx of Suicide ideation/gestures – rarely ahigh point for teen males.

22 Scale 4: Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)
Measure of rebelliousness Difficulty incorporating values and standards of society, problems with authority May engage in asocial or antisocial acts Stormy interpersonal and family relationships Underachievers Poor planning and judgement Relationships are shallow and superficial Immature and childish, narcissistic, selfish, egocentric Extraverted and outgoing Can be hostile and aggressive - sarcasm, cynicism, lack of trust Lying,cheating, stealing, sexual actibng out, excessive use of alcohol or other drugs talkative, active adventurous, ebergetic, spontaneous - wide range of inetersts do not report much emotional turmoil but will admit to feelings of emptiness, boredom, depression psycitraic pats - diagnosis - with Antisocial, p-a most frequent prognosis for therapy poor - generally unable to accept blame for behavior - terminate prematurely MMPI_A adolescents frequently have elevations here – can be highest scle 1/3 sample had scores above 65 Turbulent attempt to form identity and independence from parents – can be temporary and a phase – extremely high thoughis pathology- Antisocial acts see HL – school problesm, substance abuse Externalizing behavior with boys – lying, cheating, stealing – boys report physical abuse – girls physical and sexual abuse

23 Scale 5: Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)
Originally developed to identify homosexual invert males 56 items on MMPI-2 covering a range of topics A non-clinical scale Scale 5 elevations may be associated with positive functioning High scores for men - lack of stereotypic masculine interests, aesthetic and artistic interests, participate in child-rearing, housekeeping activities High scores for women are uncommon and usually indicative of rejection of traditional female role, interest in sports, hobbies, activities that are stereotypically more masculine than feminine Low scores for men/women - presenting self as traditionally masculine or feminine in hobbies, roles, interests Vey few ites differntiated hetro from homo - thus items were added to distinguish men from women in standradization sample and then adapted to idenftify sexual inversion in women on MMPi of original 60 items retained - most are not sexual in nature but deal with worek and rec interests, worries, fears, excessive sensitivity NAND FAMILY RELATIONSHISP Moderately related to amount of education - higher score, higher education scored differntly for men and women scores not related to symprtoms or problems relationship with sexual aggression found in some studies but not well established Scores on 5 can color interpretation of other sclaes - high 5 and high 4 meansmore inreo spective, channel antisocial feelings toward creating social change Scale 5 elevations are rare for teen males Not much research on females – esp for high scoring but would present wth stero typically male interests

24 Scale 6: Paranoia(Pa) Designed to identify patients judges to have paranoid symptoms like ideas of reference, feelings of persecution, grandiose self-concepts, suspiciousness, excessive sensitivity T scores above 70 and 6 is highest scale - person may exhibit frankly psychotic behavior Moderate elevations ( ): paranoid orientation, excessively sensitive, overly responsive to opinions of others, feel mistreated, blame others for difficulties May also be suspicious and guarded, exhibit hostility, resentment, argumentativeness Utilize projection as defense mechanism Prognosis for therapy is poor Very few false positives - usually high scores have paranoid symptroms - 40 items some deal with psychitoc behavior - some - sensitivity, cynicism, asocial behavior , excessive moral virtue, complaints about others Can get T score of 65 or more woithout endoring frankly oscyhotic itemshistory of hiopsitalizations common with high scores MMPI-A – elevation consistent with academic problems including poor grades and suspension Girls – diagreements withparents Boys – hostile, withdrawn, immature, argumentative, feel persecuted Perceived as overly doendent on adults, attention seekig, resentful

25 Scale 7 : Psychasthenia (Pt)
Similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder Thinking characterized by excessive doubts, compulsions, obsessions and unreasonable fears High scorers are extremely anxious, tense and agitated, may have physical complaints May have physical complaints and complaints of fatigue, exhaustion, insomnia and bad dreams Rigid and moralistic High scores will lack self confidence, are plagued by self doubts, can be perfectionistic, conscientious, neat, orderly, and meticulous Often report feeling sad and unhappy Tend to be shy and do not interact well socially May be motivated for treatment due to inner turmoil The clinical scale that most clearly measures anxiety and ruminative self-doubt- along with scale 2 - a good indictor of degree of distress the person feels cardia, GI compalints frequnt in non clincialpopulations - high strung, articulate, individualistic and perfoectionsitic - high standrads of morlaity Tend to be introspectibve - fear losing their minds onsessive thinking, ritualistic behavior, ruminations are common MMPI-AGilrs are likley to be deoressed- few descriptors because early rigidity may bnot be a problem iuntil later in lifegilrs make S threats, disagree with parents, steal Boys – low slef conficdence, may have been sex abused – need more research

26 Scale 8: Schizophrenia (Sc)
Possibility of a thought disorder (T=75-90) Confusion, disorganization, disorientation, unusual thoughts, attitudes, Delusions, hallucinations may be present Often have histories of inpatient/outpatient psychiatric treatment Schizoid lifestyle Shy aloof and uninvolved with few friends Unable to express hostility- withdraw into daydreams, fantasies Plagued by self doubt, feel insecure, incompetent, dissatisfied Stubborn, moody, opinionated but can also be generous, peaceful, sentimental Can be immature and impulsive Prognosis for therapy is poor Consider age/ethnicity, substancse abuse, medical disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, closed head injury Schizoid =and feelings of isolation, aleination, feeling misunderstoodand unaccepted by peers H & L –divide content into social alienation,emotional alienation, lack of ego mastery cognitive - - strnage thoguhts, diff concentarting and lack of ego mastery cognative – difficulty coping, hopelessness, depression Also lack of ago mastery defective inhibition – impuksive, hyperactive, out of control and bizarre sensory exp. MMPI-A – boys and girls report higher rate of school problems, boys suspended, girls with achievement probs Possibility of sexual abuse Girls report diagreements with parents Inclincialpopus – may be aggressive, threaten sicide ,act out Boys in contrast – guilt probne, shy, clingy, fearful, somatic complaints – with high elevation show psychotic features like delusions, khallucnations, etc..

27 Scale 9: Hypomania (Ma) Designed to identify individuals experiencing
hypomanic or elevated mood, accelerated speech and motor activity, irritability, flight of ideas and brief periods of depression A measure of psychological and physical energy Extreme elevation (T > 80) suggestive of a manic episode Outgoing, sociable, gregarious Friendly, pleasant, enthusiastic, self-confident May feel upset, tense, nervous, anxious, dissatisfied with life Poor prognosis in therapy Look at age and race – younger persons (collge students) typically obrain scores in 50 to 60 range – elderly - T score below 50 are common – A, NA and H typically score 5 to 10 points higher than whiets Scores are highy char of other aspects of profile will be acted out Manci – excess, puposeless behavior, accelerated speech, hallucinations, delusions of grandeur Resistant to interp in therapy, irregular in attendance, terminate prematurely therapist target for hostility and aggression MMPI-A – moderate = enthiusastic, animated and takes interst in things – higher elevations suggest underachievement in school and problems at home Can also relfest manic ep and antisocial acts Among nbouys – amphetamine use is coommon

28 Scale 0: Social Introversion (Si)
Nonclinical scale Introversion-extraversion continuum High scorers are socially introverted, insecure and uncomfortable in social situations Shy, reserved, timid Prefer to be alone and have few friends Described by others as cold and distant, hard to get to know Passive, submissive, compliant in relationships Worry, anxious, feel irritable, may experience periods of depression Low scorers – are sociable and extraverted, outgoing, gregarious, friendly and talkative Strong need to be around others Viewed as expressive and verbally fluent Active and energetic MMPI-A – among teens – high scores are clear indicator of difficulties in relationships – low self esteem, sopciala withdrawal Girls – withdrawan, shy, fearful, depressed eating problmes - inhibitory effect on pathology – rarely report drug alsochol/ sexual acting out Less behavior correlates for boys

29 MMPI-II: Content Scales
ANX: Anxiety FRS: Fears OBS: Obsessiveness DEP: Depression HEA: Health Concerns BIZ: Bizarre Mentation ANG: Anger CYN: Cynicism ASP: Antisocial Practices TPA: Type A Behavior LSE: Low Self-Esteem SOD: Social Discomfort FAM: Family Problems WRK: Work Interference TRT: Negative Treatment Indicators

30 WELSH CODING Record the 10 numbers of the clinical scales in order of T scores, from the highest on the left to the lowest on the right When adjacent scores are within one T score point, they are underlined. When they have the same T score they are placed in the ordinal sequence found on the profile sheet and underlined

31 Symbols 120 and above !! 110-119 ! 100-109 ** 90-99 * 80-89 “ 70-79 ‘
! ** * / : # 29 or less to the right of #

32 Projective Tests Rorschach Inkblot Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective Drawing Tests Draw-A-Person Draw-A-House Draw-A-Tree Draw-A-Family Sentence completion tests

33 Clinical Judgment Ultimately, clinician uses Judgment Impressions
Experience Data Examines all the pieces of the puzzle Theoretical framework Prior experience Clinical training Intuitions Managed care insurance companies Highly specific assessment tool Objectify target symptoms

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