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Strangelets and nuclearites— an overview Jes Madsen University of Aarhus, Denmark.

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Presentation on theme: "Strangelets and nuclearites— an overview Jes Madsen University of Aarhus, Denmark."— Presentation transcript:

1 Strangelets and nuclearites— an overview Jes Madsen University of Aarhus, Denmark

2 Topics What are strangelets and nuclearites? Ways to detect a cosmic ray strangelet flux A strangelet search with AMS-02 on the International Space Station A lunar soil strangelet search Strangelets beyond the GZK-cutoff ?

3 Strangelets (Small Lumps of Strange Quark Matter) Nucleus ( 12 C) Z=6, A=12 Z/A = 0.5 Strangelet A=12 (36 quarks) Z/A = That u,d, quark matter is not absolutely stable can be inferred by stability of normal nuclei-but this is not true for u,d,s quark matter. Roughly equal numbers of u,d,s quarks in a single ‘bag’ of cold hadronic matter. Courtesy Evan Finch (Yale)

4 E/A for bulk strange quark matter E/A (MeV)

5 Phase diagram for QCD Temperature Density

6 Quark nuggets as dark matter? Cosmological nuclearites: A<10 49 (CAUSALITY) A>10 40 (EVAPORATION) A>10 23 Ω 3 (NUCLEOSYNTH.) log(Baryon number) Q-BALLS are analogous

7 Q-balls behave like quark nuggets Madsen, Phys.Rev.Lett. 61(1988)2909 (quark nuggets) Phys.Lett. B246(1990)135 (baryonic Q-balls) Phys.Lett. B435(1998)125 (supersymmetric Q-balls) Quark nugget pollution in Galaxy => ALL NEUTRON STARS ARE STRANGE STARS Q-ball pollution in Galaxy => ALL NEUTRON STARS ARE Q-STARS OR: FLUXES ARE NEGLIGIBLE

8 ”Ordinary” strangelets Witten; Farhi & Jaffe… Shell-model vs. liquid drop model –Bulk E~A –Surface tension E~A 2/3 –Curvature E~A 1/3 B=(145 MeV) 4 m S =50, 100,… 300 MeV Madsen, PRD 50 (1994) 3328 Stable

9 B = (145MeV) 4 vs. (165MeV) 4 Unstable Stable

10 Color-Flavor Locking Madsen, PRL 87 (2001) Stable BULK STRANGELETS

11 Strangelets have low Z/A 8A 1/3 0.1A Heiselberg, PRD 48 (1993) 1418 [Ordinary strangelets] 0.3A 2/3 Madsen, PRL 87 (2001) [CFL] Nuclei 0.5A

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13 Strangelets from strange star binary collisions 1 binary ”neutron star” collision per 10,000 years in our Galaxy Release of solar masses per collision Basic assumptions: –SQM absolutely stable! –All ”neutron stars” are strange stars! –All mass released as strangelets with mass A

14 Strangelet propagation Acceleration in supernova shocks etc –Source-flux powerlaw in rigidity Diffusion in galactic magnetic field Energy loss from ionization of interstellar medium and pion production Spallation from collision with nuclei Escape from galaxy Reacceleration from passing shocks

15 Cosmic strangelet flux Z=8, A=138 [CFL] Rigidity (GV) Flux (per [year GV sqm sterad]) Source Interstellar Solar System Madsen (2005) Phys.Rev. D 71,

16 Total CFL-strangelet flux Total flux (per [year sqm sterad]) Z Interstellar Solar System No geomagnetic cutoff Madsen (2005) Phys.Rev. D 71,

17 Total CFL-strangelet flux Total flux (per [year sqm sterad]) A Interstellar Solar System Madsen (2005) Phys.Rev. D 71, No geomagnetic cutoff Mass number

18 Detecting strangelets at GV Find low Z/A cosmic rays with high precision equipment in space => AMS-02

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20 AMS-02 Collaboration USA A&M FLORIDA UNIV. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV. MIT - CAMBRIDGE NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER UNIV. OF MARYLAND-DEPRT OF PHYSICS UNIV. OF MARYLAND-E.W.S. S.CENTER YALE UNIV. - NEW HAVEN MEXICO UNAM DENMARK UNIV. OF AARHUS FINLAND HELSINKI UNIV. UNIV. OF TURKU FRANCE GAM MONTPELLIER LAPP ANNECY LPSC GRENOBLE GERMANY RWTH-I RWTH-III MAX-PLANK INST. UNIV. OF KARLSRUHE ITALY ASI CARSO TRIESTE IROE FLORENCE INFN & UNIV. OF BOLOGNA INFN & UNIV. OF MILANO INFN & UNIV. OF PERUGIA INFN & UNIV. OF PISA INFN & UNIV. OF ROMA INFN & UNIV. OF SIENA NETHERLANDS ESA-ESTEC NIKHEF NLR ROMANIA ISS UNIV. OF BUCHAREST RUSSIA I.K.I. ITEP KURCHATOV INST. MOSCOW STATE UNIV. SPAIN CIEMAT - MADRID I.A.C. CANARIAS. SWITZERLAND ETH-ZURICH UNIV. OF GENEVA CHINA BISEE (Beijing) IEE (Beijing) IHEP (Beijing) SJTU (Shanghai) SEU (Nanjing) SYSU (Guangzhou) SDU (Jinan) KOREA EWHA KYUNGPOOK NAT.UNIV. Y _1Commitment PORTUGAL LAB. OF INSTRUM. LISBON ACAD. SINICA (Taiwan) CSIST (Taiwan) NCU (Chung Li) NCKU (Tainan) NCTU (Hsinchu) NSPO (Hsinchu) TAIWAN 16 Countries, 56 Institutes, 500 Physicists ~ 95% of AMS is constructed in Europe and Asia

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22 Atlantis launch Sep. 9, 2006

23 ISS from STS-115 Sep. 17, 2006

24 Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 PURPOSE Cosmic rays Antimatter (anti-He) Dark matter Strangelets Superconducting magnet technology International Space Station (or longer)

25 The AMS superconducting magnet coils are fully assembled: Volume 35 cu. ft., Field 8,600 Gauss, Weight 2 tons

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28 Courtesy Choutko (MIT)

29 Detecting strangelets at 100 MeV Find low Z/A ”nuclei” in lunar dust with high precision accelerator mass spectrometer => Lunar Soil Strangelet Search

30 The Moon as a strangelet detector

31 NASA gave us 15 grams of lunar soil from Apollo 11

32 Wright Nuclear Structure Lab Yale LSSS-collaboration: Sandweiss, Majka, Finch, Ashenfelter, Chikanian, Han, Heinz, Parker (Yale) Fisher, Monreal (MIT) Madsen (Århus)

33 Courtesy Evan Finch (Yale)

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35 Lunar soil flux limits Baryon number Flux (m 2 sr yr) -1 A Current Preliminary Limit Goal for Z= 8 (also sensitive to nearby charges) AMS-01 interesting event 1 event sensitivity in AMS-02 Evan Finch (Yale) Predicted flux (Madsen 05)

36 Cronin, Gaisser & Swordy (1997)

37 Strangelets could also explain Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays Madsen & Larsen, PRL 90 (2003) Avoids the acceleration problem of ordinary UHECR candidates (HIGH Z) 2.Avoids the GZK cut-off from interaction with 2.7K cosmic microwave background (HIGH A)

38 Eliminating the GZK-cutoff a)Photo-pion production cut-off at b)Photo-disintegration at c)Photo-pair-production above

39 Summary Strangelets have low Z/A CFL and non-CFL strangelets differ wrt. Z Experimental verification/falsification of –Strangelet existence Realistic from AMS-02 [2008-?] Possible from lunar soil search [2006-7] –(A,Z)-relation (CFL or ordinary) Optimistic, but not impossible from AMS-02 or lunar soil search Possible explanation of UHECR’s Can play similar games for Q-balls


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