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Improved Reflexive Testing Algorithm for Hepatitis C Infection Using Signal-to-Cutoff Ratios of a Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Assay K.K.Y. Lai, M. Jin,

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Presentation on theme: "Improved Reflexive Testing Algorithm for Hepatitis C Infection Using Signal-to-Cutoff Ratios of a Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Assay K.K.Y. Lai, M. Jin,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Improved Reflexive Testing Algorithm for Hepatitis C Infection Using Signal-to-Cutoff Ratios of a Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Assay K.K.Y. Lai, M. Jin, S. Yuan, M.F. Larson, J.A. Dominitz, and D.D. Bankson July 2011 © Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry

2 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Introduction  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common chronic viral infection in the United States. –1.6% of the population test positive for antibodies to HCV (anti- HCV). –3.2 million (1.3%) are chronically infected.  The diagnosis of HCV infection is based on the detection of: –Anti-HCV (HCV exposure) –HCV RNA (viremia)

3 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Introduction  The strategies for detection of HCV infection by detection of anti-HCV and HCV RNA are variable.  False positive results of anti-HCV by chemiluminescence immunoassay exist. Recombinant immunoblot assay has been used to confirm exposure to HCV.  An improved reflexive testing algorithm for HCV infection may reduce unnecessary supplementary testing.

4 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Questions  Is there a standard clinical laboratory testing strategy for detection of HCV infection?  Why should laboratories consider reflex testing approaches based on the signal-to-cutoff (S/Co) ratio?

5 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Materials & Methods  Methods: –Chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) –Recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) –Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)  Study population: –34,243 patients were tested for anti-HCV by CIA. –More than 2,400 positive anti-HCV patients were further tested by RT-PCR. –About 800 patients negative for HCV RNA were further evaluated by RIBA.

6 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Materials & Methods  Analytical Steps

7 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Materials & Methods  Statistical Analysis –The following statistical data were calculated and analyzed : Diagnostic sensitivity Diagnostic specificity Positive predictive value (PPV) Negative predictive value (NPV) –ROC curves were constructed for: RT-PCR testing RIBA testing

8 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Questions  What patient samples were used for CIA and RT-PCR testing?  What is the definition of S/Co ratio for CIA testing?  Why not screen for anti-HCV by RIBA?

9 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Results  Prediction of HCV viremia with RT-PCR –An S/Co ratio of 20.0 is the optimal cut off value for the prediction of HCV viremia (Table 1 and Figure 2).  Prediction of HCV exposure with RIBA –An S/Co ratio of 20.0 is the optimal cut off value for the prediction of HCV exposure (Table 2 and Figure 3).  Prediction of HCV exposure and viremia –An S/Co ratio <3.0 rules out active HCV infection and exposure with 100% negative predictive value (Tables 1 and 2).

10 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Results

11 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Figure 2. PCR test ROC curve for different cutoff levels on the CIA for anti-HCV. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (95% CIs) are 100% (99.8%–100%) and 23.0% (20.3%–26.0%) for an S/Co ratio of 3.0, 99.7% (99.3%–99.9%) and 39.5% (36.2%– 42.9%) for an S/Co ratio of 8.0, and 95.5% (94.3%–96.5%) and 58.8% (55.5%– 62.2%) for an S/Co ratio of The area under the curve (95% CI) is (0.785– 0.827). Results

12 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Figure 3. The RIBA test ROC curve for different cutoff levels on the CIA for anti-HCV. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (95% CIs) are 100% (99.8%–100%) and 41.9% (37.3%– 46.6%) for an S/Co ratio of 3.0, 99.5% (99.1%–99.8%) and 70.9% (66.5%–75.1%) for an S/Co ratio of 8.0, and 93.3% (92.1%–94.4%) and 94.4% (91.8%–96.2%) for an S/Co ratio of The area under the curve (95% CI) is 0.983(0.977– 0.990). Results

13 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Questions  What are the rates of positive results for HCV RNA and RIBA when the S/Co ratio is <3.0?  What are the rates of positive results for HCV RNA and RIBA when the S/Co ratio is ≥20.0?  Why do some of the CIA anti-HCV results need to be confirmed by RIBA?

14 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Conclusion: Proposed Algorithm of HCV Testing (Figure 4):  If the S/Co ratio is <3.0 or ≥20.0, then RIBA is not necessary to confirm the negative or positive results, respectively.  If the S/Co ratio is within the range of , then anti-HCV CIA results should be confirmed by RIBA, unless RT-PCR testing has been performed and the results are positive.  Anti-HCV results with an S/Co ratio ≥20.0, or those with an S/Co ratio within the range of and confirmed positive by RIBA, should be further investigated by RT-PCR testing to assess for HCV viremia.

15 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Conclusion:

16 © Copyright 2009 by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry Thank you for participating in this month’s Clinical Chemistry Journal Club. Additional Journal Clubs are available at Follow us


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