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Sport Books Publisher1 What’s My Score? Evaluation in Physical & Health Education Chapter 10.

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1 Sport Books Publisher1 What’s My Score? Evaluation in Physical & Health Education Chapter 10

2 Sport Books Publisher2 Objectives To develop an appreciation of the usefulness and application of testing, measurement, and evaluation To outline the criteria for the evaluation and selection of tests in physical and health education To become familiar with a variety of practical and economical tests that are useful to physical education teachers and students in various performance areas To administer these tests in a reliable and valid manner

3 Sport Books Publisher3 Introduction

4 Sport Books Publisher4 Introduction Evaluative decisions are made everyday The soundness of these decisions varies with the information used to make them Many of our decisions are based on the results of past or current research and testing that has been conducted

5 Sport Books Publisher5 ACCUMULATE INFORMATION ORGANIZE INFORMATION The Decision-Making Process EVALUATE INFORMATION DRAW CONCLUSIONS MAKE A DECISION

6 Sport Books Publisher6 ACCUMULATE INFORMATION ORGANIZE INFORMATION Factors to be Considered in the Process… EVALUATE INFORMATION DRAW CONCLUSIONS MAKE A DECISION

7 Sport Books Publisher7 Purposes of Testing and Evaluation

8 Sport Books Publisher8 Purposes of Testing and Evaluation The use of specific tests to evaluate performance can be a great source of motivation However, valid, reliable, and effective tests must be selected in order to benefit the individual being tested

9 Sport Books Publisher9 Six Purposes of Testing and Evaluation 1.Placement 2.Diagnosis 3.Prediction 4.Motivation 5.Achievement 6.Program Evaluation

10 Sport Books Publisher10 1.Placement Initial tests can be used to group individuals on the basis of skill level or ability Such grouping allows for the most efficient and effective use of time for training

11 Sport Books Publisher11 2.Diagnosis After administering a test, the results must be evaluated Performances can be evaluated Deficiencies and weaknesses can be identified These results determine what specific areas should be focused on during training

12 Sport Books Publisher12 3.Prediction Specialized tests can be used to predict future results and performance These tests have varying degrees of success in their capacity to predict future events Tests and measurements assist in the accuracy of our predictions

13 Sport Books Publisher13 4.Motivation Most individuals need the proper motivation if they are to put forth their full effort Measurement and evaluation can be stimulating and challenging enough to increase individuals’ motivation levels

14 Sport Books Publisher14 5.Achievement Measurement and tests allow achievement to be evaluated In order to objectively and accurately measure achievement, a set of objectives must be established prior to testing

15 Sport Books Publisher15 6.Program Evaluation Allows for the determination of whether a program has successfully achieved its objectives Often related to budgetary constraints

16 Sport Books Publisher16 Norms - Your Reference Perspective Norm-referenced standards are established from numerous previous trials The standards reflect achievement relative to a clearly defined subgroup or population These standards allow comparison of one’s performance against pre-established norms Can be used to identify athletic talent based on an individual’s performance relative to established norms Can indicate where improvements are needed Can provide a starting reference point from which to compare subsequent performances

17 Sport Books Publisher17 Reliability and Validity

18 Sport Books Publisher18 Reliability Refers to the consistency or repeatability of test scores, data, or observations A test is reliable if measurements are the same each time the test is administered to the same individual Using a target on a dart board as an example, reliability refers to the ‘clustering’ or ‘spread’ in reference to the placement of each dart thrown

19 Sport Books Publisher19 Reliability Reliability refers to the consistency of test scores

20 Sport Books Publisher20 Validity A trait that is possessed by the instrument or test being used The extent to which a test measures what it proposes to measure Using a target on a dart board as an example, validity refers to the placement of each dart thrown relative to an established standard or intended target (distance from the ‘bull’s eye’)

21 Sport Books Publisher21 Validity Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it proposes to measure

22 Sport Books Publisher22 Reliability and Validity In order to be deemed valid, a test must be reliable and relevant, and measure what it reports to measure

23 Sport Books Publisher23 Assessing Physical Fitness

24 Sport Books Publisher24 Fitness Tests Measuring Aerobic Capacity 12-Minute Run-Walk Test 1-Mile Run or Walk Test 2400-Metre Endurance run YMCA 3-Minute Step Test Queen’s College Step Test

25 Sport Books Publisher25 Measuring Aerobic Capacity Aerobic capacity is a reflection of an individual’s cardiorespiratory endurance Aerobic capacity can be measured with the use of either laboratory or field tests

26 Sport Books Publisher26 Measuring Aerobic Capacity - Lab Tests In the laboratory, measurement of VO 2 max is achieved during a graded exercise test to exhaustion Laboratory tests can be rigorous, time-consuming, and require the use of expensive equipment

27 Sport Books Publisher27 Measuring Aerobic Capacity - Field Tests Field test are often used as an alternative to lab tests as they predict VO 2 max using various calculations Some of these involve running tests and step tests

28 Sport Books Publisher28 Measuring Aerobic Capacity - Field Tests Aerobic capacity is estimated from the heart rate response or recovery heart rate following activity Standardization of tests is crucial to the accuracy of field tests

29 Sport Books Publisher29 12-Minute Run-Walk Test Can be used with: Males and females, from junior high school to college age Equipment required: Stopwatch, whistle, distance markers Goal of test: To run or walk around a predetermined course as many times as possible in 12 minutes Test Score: Distance covered during 12- minute run-walk test in kilometres

30 Sport Books Publisher30 12-Minute Run-Walk Test Standards Fitness Category Distance Covered by Age (years) 13-1920-2930-39 Superior(males)≥3.01≥2.85≥2.74 (females)≥2.45≥2.35≥2.25 Excellent(males)2.78-3.002.66-2.842.53-2.73 (females)2.32-2.442.17-2.342.09-2.24 Good(males)2.53-2.772.41-2.652.35-2.52 (females)2.09-2.311.98-2.161.92-2.08 Fair(males)2.22-2.522.12-2.402.11-2.34 (females)1.92-2.081.80-1.971.71-1.91 Poor(males)2.09-2.211.96-2.111.91-2.10 (females)1.61-1.911.54-1.791.53-1.70 Very Poor(males)≤2.08≤1.95≤1.90 (females)≤1.60≤1.53≤1.52 Fitness classifications based on distance covered (km)

31 Sport Books Publisher31 1-Mile Run or Walk Test Can be used with: Males and females, aged 5 through adulthood Equipment required: Stopwatch, a course or track of known dimensions Goal of test: To run or walk a 1-mile distance in the shortest time possible Test Score: Time taken to run 1-mile in minutes and seconds

32 Sport Books Publisher32 1-Mile Run or Walk Test PercentileMalesFemales 9011:0811:45 7511:4212:49 5012:3813:15 2513:3814:12 1014:3715:03 Norms (min:sec) for the 1-mile run

33 Sport Books Publisher33 1-Mile Run or Walk Test VO 2 Max Prediction Equation: VO 2 max = 132.853 - (0.0769) x W - (0.3877) x A + (6.315) x G - (3.2469) x T - (0.1565) x HR Where, VO 2 max = maximum aerobic capacity in ml/kg/min W = weight in pounds A = age in years G = gender (0 for females, 1 for males) T = 1-mile walk time in minutes HR = heart rate in beats per minute Note - this equation is appropriate for individuals aged 20-69 years

34 Sport Books Publisher34 2400-Metre Endurance Run Can be used with: Males and females, aged 5 through adulthood Equipment required: Stopwatch, a course or track of known dimensions Goal of test: To run a 2400-metre distance in the shortest time possible Test Score: Time to complete run in minutes and seconds

35 Sport Books Publisher35 YMCA 3-Minute Step Test Can be used with: Large groups of people; unfit individuals Equipment required: A 12” bench, a metronome set at 96 beats per minute, a watch, and a timer Goal of test: To step at a cadence of 96 beats per minute up and down a bench for three minutes Test Score: One-minute recovery heart rate

36 Sport Books Publisher36 Queen’s College Step Test Can be used with: Males and females, college age or older Equipment required: Bleachers or any bench at a height of 16-17”, a metronome, and a stopwatch Goal of test: To step at a specific cadence (96 for males; 88 for females) up and down a bench for three minutes Test Score: 15-second recovery heart rate

37 Sport Books Publisher37 Queen’s College Step Test VO 2 Max Prediction Equation: VO 2 max (males) = 111.33 -0.42 (HR) VO 2 max (females) = 65.81 -0.185 (HR) Where, VO 2 max = maximum aerobic capacity in ml/kg/min HR = heart rate in beats per minute

38 Sport Books Publisher38 Fitness Tests  Measuring Body Composition YMCA Skinfold Test Circumference (Girth) Measurements

39 Sport Books Publisher39 Fitness Tests  Measuring Body Composition YMCA Skinfold Test Circumference (Girth) Measurements

40 Sport Books Publisher40 Measuring Body Composition A feasible, reliable, valid, and popular method used for estimating body composition Measurements of subcutaneous fat are based on the relationship that exists between subcutaneous fat and total body fat Skinfold measurements are made with skinfold calipers The sum of a set of skinfolds indicates the relative degree of fatness of an individual

41 Sport Books Publisher41 YMCA Skinfold Test Equipment: Skinfold calipers Skinfold sites: Four sites: abdomen, suprailium, triceps, thigh  Calculation of % body fat: Males %fat = 0.29288 x (sum of 4) - 0.0005 x (sum of 4) 2 + 0.15845 x (age) - 5.76377 Females %fat = 0.29669 x (sum of 4) - 0.00043 x (sum of 4) 2 + 0.02963 x (age) - 1.4172

42 Sport Books Publisher42 Norms for Percent Body Fat RatingMalesFemales 18-2526-3518-2526-35 Very Lean4-78-1213-1713-18 Lean8-1013-1518-2019-21 Leaner than average 11-1316-1821-2322-23 Average14-1619-2124-2524-26 Fatter than average 18-2022-2426-2827-30 Fat22-2625-2829-3131-35 Overfat28-3730-3733-4336-48

43 Sport Books Publisher43 Circumference (Girth) Measurements Equipment: A flexible steel or cloth measuring tape  Circumference sites: Neck, chest, hips, thigh, calf, biceps, abdomen

44 Sport Books Publisher44 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Strength Grip Dynamometer One-Repetition Maximum

45 Sport Books Publisher45 Measuring Muscular Strength Strength: The maximum force that muscle can generate during a brief contraction versus a rigid resistance Laboratory tests of muscular strength require sophisticated equipment and are very involved Field methods are useful for general populations and include the use of a hand-grip dynamometer or the completion of a one repetition maximum (1RM)

46 Sport Books Publisher46 Grip Dynamometer An isometric strength test Grip dynamometer is used to measure the grip strength of the hand Hand grip strength is correlated with total body strength

47 Sport Books Publisher47 One Repetition Maximum Refers to the maximum amount of weight an individual can lift just one time Can use values from a bench press or leg press By dividing the 1RM values by the subjects’ body weight, strength measures are made equitable across weight classes

48 Sport Books Publisher48 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Power Standing Long Jump Vertical Jump

49 Sport Books Publisher49 Measuring Muscular Power Power: Refers to the ability to release maximum force in the shortest possible time Tests of power are easy and practical to administer Activities involving rapid muscular contraction include the vertical jump, shot put, and standing long jump

50 Sport Books Publisher50 Standing Long Jump Can be used with: Males and females, aged 6 through adulthood Equipment required: Floor or mat, a tape measure, and a marking material (chalk or tape); OR a standing long jump mat if available Goal of test: To jump horizontally as far as possible from a standing start Test Score: The distance between the take-off line and the heel touchdown closest to the take-off line

51 Sport Books Publisher51 Standing Long Jump with Mat

52 Sport Books Publisher52 Vertical Jump (Sergeant Jump) Can be used with: Males and females, aged 9 through adulthood Equipment required: A measuring tape or yardstick, chalk, and a smooth wall at least 12’ high; OR a vertical jump test mat Goal of test: To measure power in the legs by jumping as high as possible from a standing start Test Score: Jump height, measured by subtracting the reach height from jump height

53 Sport Books Publisher53 Traditional Vertical Jump

54 Sport Books Publisher54 Vertical Jump with Test Mat

55 Sport Books Publisher55 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Endurance YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test Pull-Ups or Flexed Arm Hang Push-Ups Test Continuous Burpee Test

56 Sport Books Publisher56 Measuring Muscular Endurance Endurance: Refers to the ability of skeletal muscle to maintain tension or to execute repeated movements of submaximal resistance over time Most tests of muscular endurance are quite practical Scoring usually involves recording the number of repetitions completed for a particular exercise

57 Sport Books Publisher57 YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: An exercise mat Goal of test: To perform the maximum number of sit-ups possible in 1- minute Test Score: Total number of sit-ups completed

58 Sport Books Publisher58 Norms for the YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test (no. of reps.) Performance Level Age and Sex 13 Males 14 Males 15+ Males 13+ Females Excellent≥98≥ 99≥ 103≥ 93 Above Average87-9790-10092-10283-92 Average73-8676-8979-9171-82 Below Average55-7258-7561-8054-70 Needs Improvement ≤54≤ 57≤ 60≤ 53

59 Sport Books Publisher59 Pull-Ups or Flexed Arm Hang Can be used with: Usually used for testing boys only Equipment required: A horizontal bar (high enough to accommodate the tallest subject) Goal of test: To perform as many pull-ups as possible (pull-ups); to hold a flexed arm position as long as possible (flexed arm hang) Test Score: Total number of pull-ups completed; or number of seconds that the arm hang is maintained

60 Sport Books Publisher60 Pull-Ups Pull-ups are a test of the muscular endurance of the arms and shoulder girdle

61 Sport Books Publisher61 Flexed Arm Hang The flexed arm hang may be used for subjects who cannot pull their own body weight

62 Sport Books Publisher62 Push-Ups Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: An exercise or soft mat Goal of test: To perform as many push-ups as possible to exhaustion Test Score: Total number of push-ups successfully completed

63 Sport Books Publisher63 Push-Ups Push-ups are a test of the muscular endurance of the upper body

64 Sport Books Publisher64 Push-Ups Females may perform modified push-ups with the knees bent and touching the mat rather than the toes

65 Sport Books Publisher65 Norms for the Push-Ups Test Performance Level No. of Push-Ups Males (15-29) Females (15-29) Excellent50+45+ Above Average40-4930-44 Average30-3920-29 Below Average20-2910-19 Needs Improvement0-190-9

66 Sport Books Publisher66 Continuous Burpee Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: A stopwatch, wrist watch, or clock with a second hand Goal of test: To perform as many burpees as possible to exhaustion Test Score: Total number of repetitions successfully completed

67 Sport Books Publisher67 Continuous Burpee Test

68 Sport Books Publisher68 Norms for the Continuous Burpee Test Performance Level No. of Burpees MalesFemales Excellent 94+46+ Above Average 70-9338-45 Average 39-6920-37 Below Average 22-3812-19 Needs Improvement 0-210-11

69 Sport Books Publisher69 Fitness Tests Measuring Flexibility Sit-and-Reach Test Bridge-Up Test Hamstring Looseness Test Total Body Rotation Test

70 Sport Books Publisher70 Measuring Flexibility Flexibility: Refers to the range of motion about a joint Flexibility tends to be joint specific Therefore, a general test of flexibility doesn’t exist Various lab tests can assess joint range of motion reliability and validly More simple field tests include the sit-and-reach test, bridge-up test, hamstring looseness test, and the total body rotation test

71 Sport Books Publisher71 Sit-and-Reach Test Can be used with: Males and females, aged 5 through adulthood Equipment required: A sit-and-reach box with a measurement scale; OR a metre stick or measuring tape Goal of test: To reach forward as far as possible Test Score: The furthest distance achieved in centimetres

72 Sport Books Publisher72 Sit-and-Reach Test

73 Sport Books Publisher73 Bridge-Up Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A mat and a metre stick or measuring tape Goal of test: To achieve a bridged position, with the hands and feet as close together as possible Test Score: The difference between the highest point of the arched back (measured from the floor) and the subject’s standing height

74 Sport Books Publisher74 Bridge-Up Test

75 Sport Books Publisher75 Hamstring Looseness Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A level floor Goal of test: To reach as far as possible towards the ground from a standing start by performing forward flexion Test Score: Hand position reached during flexion

76 Sport Books Publisher76 Hamstring Looseness Test Performance Level Position Reached ExcellentPalms touch the floor Above AverageKnuckles touch the floor AverageFingertips touch the floor Below AverageFingertips touch the feet Needs Improvement Fingertips touch the ankles or higher

77 Sport Books Publisher77 Hamstring Looseness Test

78 Sport Books Publisher78 Total Body Rotation Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A wall, measuring tape, tape (to fasten measuring tape to wall), chalk Goal of test: To rotate the trunk, with the arm extended backwards, as far as possible along a wall, and to hold the position for 2 seconds Test Score: Distance reached (in centimetres) along the tape measure

79 Sport Books Publisher79 Total Body Rotation Test

80 Sport Books Publisher80 Fitness Tests Measuring Agility Burpee Test CAHPER Shuttle Run Hexagonal Obstacle Test

81 Sport Books Publisher81 Measuring Agility Agility: The physical ability that enables rapid and precise change of body position and direction Agility is important for many sports such as judo, wrestling, and badminton Many tests of agility exist, a few of which include the burpee test, CAHPER shuttle run, and the hexagonal obstacle test

82 Sport Books Publisher82 Burpee Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: A stopwatch, wrist watch, or clock with a second hand Goal of test: To perform as many parts (from 1 to 4) of the exercise sequence as possible in 10 seconds  Test Score: Total number of parts completed in 10 seconds

83 Sport Books Publisher83 Burpee Test (Parts) PART 1PART 4PART 3PART 2 To measure agility using the burpee test, as many parts of the burpee as possible must be performed completely in 10 seconds

84 Sport Books Publisher84 CAHPER Shuttle Run Can be used with: Females and males, aged 9 through adulthood Equipment required: Marking tape, a stopwatch, and two blocks of wood Goal of test: To complete the test in as little time as possible  Test Score: Time (seconds) taken to complete the test

85 Sport Books Publisher85 CAHPER Shuttle Run

86 Sport Books Publisher86 Hexagonal Obstacle Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: Marking tape or chalk, a stopwatch, and a measuring tape or yardstick to make the following floor pattern (66 cm per side)

87 Sport Books Publisher87 Hexagonal Obstacle Test Goal of test: To complete three revolutions of the exercise in as little time as possible  Test Score: Time (seconds) taken to complete the test (three full revolutions)

88 Sport Books Publisher88 Fitness Tests  Measuring Body Composition YMCA Skinfold Test Circumference (Girth) Measurements

89 Sport Books Publisher89 Measuring Body Composition A feasible, reliable, valid, and popular method used for estimating body composition Measurements of subcutaneous fat are based on the relationship that exists between subcutaneous fat and total body fat Skinfold measurements are made with skinfold calipers The sum of a set of skinfolds indicates the relative degree of fatness of an individual

90 Sport Books Publisher90 YMCA Skinfold Test Equipment: Skinfold calipers Skinfold sites: Four sites: abdomen, suprailium, triceps, thigh  Calculation of % body fat: Males %fat = 0.29288 x (sum of 4) - 0.0005 x (sum of 4) 2 + 0.15845 x (age) - 5.76377 Females %fat = 0.29669 x (sum of 4) - 0.00043 x (sum of 4) 2 + 0.02963 x (age) - 1.4172

91 Sport Books Publisher91 Norms for Percent Body Fat RatingMalesFemales 18-2526-3518-2526-35 Very Lean4-78-1213-1713-18 Lean8-1013-1518-2019-21 Leaner than average 11-1316-1821-2322-23 Average14-1619-2124-2524-26 Fatter than average 18-2022-2426-2827-30 Fat22-2625-2829-3131-35 Overfat28-3730-3733-4336-48

92 Sport Books Publisher92 Circumference (Girth) Measurements Equipment: A flexible steel or cloth measuring tape  Circumference sites: Neck, chest, hips, thigh, calf, biceps, abdomen

93 Sport Books Publisher93 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Strength Grip Dynamometer One-Repetition Maximum

94 Sport Books Publisher94 Measuring Muscular Strength Strength: The maximum force that muscle can generate during a brief contraction versus a rigid resistance Laboratory tests of muscular strength require sophisticated equipment and are very involved Field methods are useful for general populations and include the use of a hand-grip dynamometer or the completion of a one repetition maximum (1RM)

95 Sport Books Publisher95 Grip Dynamometer An isometric strength test Grip dynamometer is used to measure the grip strength of the hand Hand grip strength is correlated with total body strength

96 Sport Books Publisher96 One Repetition Maximum Refers to the maximum amount of weight an individual can lift just one time Can use values from a bench press or leg press By dividing the 1RM values by the subjects’ body weight, strength measures are made equitable across weight classes

97 Sport Books Publisher97 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Power Standing Long Jump Vertical Jump

98 Sport Books Publisher98 Measuring Muscular Power Power: Refers to the ability to release maximum force in the shortest possible time Tests of power are easy and practical to administer Activities involving rapid muscular contraction include the vertical jump, shot put, and standing long jump

99 Sport Books Publisher99 Standing Long Jump Can be used with: Males and females, aged 6 through adulthood Equipment required: Floor or mat, a tape measure, and a marking material (chalk or tape); OR a standing long jump mat if available Goal of test: To jump horizontally as far as possible from a standing start Test Score: The distance between the take-off line and the heel touchdown closest to the take-off line

100 Sport Books Publisher100 Standing Long Jump with Mat

101 Sport Books Publisher101 Vertical Jump (Sergeant Jump) Can be used with: Males and females, aged 9 through adulthood Equipment required: A measuring tape or yardstick, chalk, and a smooth wall at least 12’ high; OR a vertical jump test mat Goal of test: To measure power in the legs by jumping as high as possible from a standing start Test Score: Jump height, measured by subtracting the reach height from jump height

102 Sport Books Publisher102 Traditional Vertical Jump

103 Sport Books Publisher103 Vertical Jump with Test Mat

104 Sport Books Publisher104 Fitness Tests  Measuring Muscular Endurance YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test Pull-Ups or Flexed Arm Hang Push-Ups Test Continuous Burpee Test

105 Sport Books Publisher105 Measuring Muscular Endurance Endurance: Refers to the ability of skeletal muscle to maintain tension or to execute repeated movements of submaximal resistance over time Most tests of muscular endurance are quite practical Scoring usually involves recording the number of repetitions completed for a particular exercise

106 Sport Books Publisher106 YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: An exercise mat Goal of test: To perform the maximum number of sit-ups possible in 1- minute Test Score: Total number of sit-ups completed

107 Sport Books Publisher107 Norms for the YMCA 1-Minute Sit-Up Test (no. of reps.) Performance Level Age and Sex 13 Males 14 Males 15+ Males 13+ Females Excellent≥98≥ 99≥ 103≥ 93 Above Average87-9790-10092-10283-92 Average73-8676-8979-9171-82 Below Average55-7258-7561-8054-70 Needs Improvement ≤54≤ 57≤ 60≤ 53

108 Sport Books Publisher108 Pull-Ups or Flexed Arm Hang Can be used with: Usually used for testing boys only Equipment required: A horizontal bar (high enough to accommodate the tallest subject) Goal of test: To perform as many pull-ups as possible (pull-ups); to hold a flexed arm position as long as possible (flexed arm hang) Test Score: Total number of pull-ups completed; or number of seconds that the arm hang is maintained

109 Sport Books Publisher109 Pull-Ups Pull-ups are a test of the muscular endurance of the arms and shoulder girdle

110 Sport Books Publisher110 Flexed Arm Hang The flexed arm hang may be used for subjects who cannot pull their own body weight

111 Sport Books Publisher111 Push-Ups Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: An exercise or soft mat Goal of test: To perform as many push-ups as possible to exhaustion Test Score: Total number of push-ups successfully completed

112 Sport Books Publisher112 Push-Ups Push-ups are a test of the muscular endurance of the upper body

113 Sport Books Publisher113 Push-Ups Females may perform modified push-ups with the knees bent and touching the mat rather than the toes

114 Sport Books Publisher114 Norms for the Push-Ups Test Performance Level No. of Push-Ups Males (15-29) Females (15-29) Excellent50+45+ Above Average40-4930-44 Average30-3920-29 Below Average20-2910-19 Needs Improvement0-190-9

115 Sport Books Publisher115 Continuous Burpee Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: A stopwatch, wrist watch, or clock with a second hand Goal of test: To perform as many burpees as possible to exhaustion Test Score: Total number of repetitions successfully completed

116 Sport Books Publisher116 Continuous Burpee Test

117 Sport Books Publisher117 Norms for the Continuous Burpee Test Performance Level No. of Burpees MalesFemales Excellent 94+46+ Above Average 70-9338-45 Average 39-6920-37 Below Average 22-3812-19 Needs Improvement 0-210-11

118 Sport Books Publisher118 Fitness Tests Measuring Flexibility Sit-and-Reach Test Bridge-Up Test Hamstring Looseness Test Total Body Rotation Test

119 Sport Books Publisher119 Measuring Flexibility Flexibility: Refers to the range of motion about a joint Flexibility tends to be joint specific Therefore, a general test of flexibility doesn’t exist Various lab tests can assess joint range of motion reliability and validly More simple field tests include the sit-and-reach test, bridge-up test, hamstring looseness test, and the total body rotation test

120 Sport Books Publisher120 Sit-and-Reach Test Can be used with: Males and females, aged 5 through adulthood Equipment required: A sit-and-reach box with a measurement scale; OR a metre stick or measuring tape Goal of test: To reach forward as far as possible Test Score: The furthest distance achieved in centimetres

121 Sport Books Publisher121 Sit-and-Reach Test

122 Sport Books Publisher122 Bridge-Up Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A mat and a metre stick or measuring tape Goal of test: To achieve a bridged position, with the hands and feet as close together as possible Test Score: The difference between the highest point of the arched back (measured from the floor) and the subject’s standing height

123 Sport Books Publisher123 Bridge-Up Test

124 Sport Books Publisher124 Hamstring Looseness Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A level floor Goal of test: To reach as far as possible towards the ground from a standing start by performing forward flexion Test Score: Hand position reached during flexion

125 Sport Books Publisher125 Hamstring Looseness Test Performance Level Position Reached ExcellentPalms touch the floor Above AverageKnuckles touch the floor AverageFingertips touch the floor Below AverageFingertips touch the feet Needs Improvement Fingertips touch the ankles or higher

126 Sport Books Publisher126 Hamstring Looseness Test

127 Sport Books Publisher127 Total Body Rotation Test Can be used with: Males and females, most ages Equipment required: A wall, measuring tape, tape (to fasten measuring tape to wall), chalk Goal of test: To rotate the trunk, with the arm extended backwards, as far as possible along a wall, and to hold the position for 2 seconds Test Score: Distance reached (in centimetres) along the tape measure

128 Sport Books Publisher128 Total Body Rotation Test

129 Sport Books Publisher129 Fitness Tests Measuring Agility Burpee Test CAHPER Shuttle Run Hexagonal Obstacle Test

130 Sport Books Publisher130 Measuring Agility Agility: The physical ability that enables rapid and precise change of body position and direction Agility is important for many sports such as judo, wrestling, and badminton Many tests of agility exist, a few of which include the burpee test, CAHPER shuttle run, and the hexagonal obstacle test

131 Sport Books Publisher131 Burpee Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: A stopwatch, wrist watch, or clock with a second hand Goal of test: To perform as many parts (from 1 to 4) of the exercise sequence as possible in 10 seconds  Test Score: Total number of parts completed in 10 seconds

132 Sport Books Publisher132 Burpee Test (Parts) PART 1PART 4PART 3PART 2 To measure agility using the burpee test, as many parts of the burpee as possible must be performed completely in 10 seconds

133 Sport Books Publisher133 CAHPER Shuttle Run Can be used with: Females and males, aged 9 through adulthood Equipment required: Marking tape, a stopwatch, and two blocks of wood Goal of test: To complete the test in as little time as possible  Test Score: Time (seconds) taken to complete the test

134 Sport Books Publisher134 CAHPER Shuttle Run

135 Sport Books Publisher135 Hexagonal Obstacle Test Can be used with: Females and males, most ages Equipment required: Marking tape or chalk, a stopwatch, and a measuring tape or yardstick to make the following floor pattern (66 cm per side)

136 Sport Books Publisher136 Hexagonal Obstacle Test Goal of test: To complete three revolutions of the exercise in as little time as possible  Test Score: Time (seconds) taken to complete the test (three full revolutions)


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