4Parts of the SunCore: enormous pressure & high temperatures cause the fusion of hydrogen into helium (15 million ºC)Corona: very hot, creates solar wind, only visible during a solar eclipse (1 million ºC)Photosphere: innermost layer of atmosphere – VISIBLE LIGHT (6 thousand ºC)Radiation Zone: energy from the core moves through the radiative zone in the form of electromagnetic radiation (2-7 million ºC)Convective Zone: hot gasses move outward, cool, contract, sink, repeat (2 million ºC)Chromosphere: gives off redish light from Hydrogen (4-50 thousand ºC)
5Solar Activity (not part of your notes) The sun is in constant motion.Parts of the sun rotate faster than others.The equator moves the fastest, the poles the slowest.It takes an average of 27 days for the sun to make one rotation.
6SunspotsDark areas of the photosphere of the sun, that are cooler than the surrounding areas, and have a strong magnetic field.Caused by magnetic fields created through the movement of gasses (rotation and convection).The sunspot cycle lasts 11 years.
82008 also experienced a 50 year low in solar wind pressure. SUNSPOTSSept 27, 2001Sept 27, (200+ days with no sunspots)2008 also experienced a 50 year low in solar wind pressure.
9Solar Activity (Ejections) Affected by the sunspot cycleSolar Ejections are when the sun emits atomic particles:ProminencesSolar FlaresCoronal Mass Ejections (CME’s)
10Erupting ProminencesHuge arches of glowing gasses that connect areas (in the sun’s atmosphere) that have positive magnetic energy to areas with negative magnetic energy.Caused by the same magnetic fields that create sunspots.
12Coronal Mass EjectionParticles (or parts of the corona) are thrown off the sun.Strike Earth’s magnetosphere creating disturbances called geomagnetic storms.Geomagnetic storms can disturb radio communication, damage satellites and cause auroras.
14Earth’s Magnetosphere A magnetic field surrounding the earth – affected by solar wind and the magnetic fields of other space objects.Protects the majority of the Earth from the solar wind.Solar wind is a stream of electrically charged particles (protons & electrons) flowing from the sun.
20Geomagnetic Storm Effects Radiation Hazards to humans – especially those in spaceMigratory animals less able to navigate (esp. homing pigeons)Communication Disruptions: ground-to -air, ship-to-shore, shortwave broadcast, and amateur radio.
21Geomagnetic Storm Effects GPS & Loran navigation disruptionsSatellite hardware damagePower Grid Outages – 1989 Quebec & NE US was out for 9 hours (affecting 6 million people)