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The Physical Death of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ Dr. Mark I. Kaldas.

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Presentation on theme: "The Physical Death of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ Dr. Mark I. Kaldas."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Physical Death of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ Dr. Mark I. Kaldas

2 P URPOSE Examine the physical pains that our Lord endured on our behalf: Medically Scientifically Historical Review: The practice of crucifixion The chronological events leading up the crucifixion of Christ

3 S OURCES The Divine Gospels Church fathers Non-church fathers and historians The Shroud of Turin Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) William D Edwards, MD, et. al.

4 Challenge Questions 1) Why was crucifixion used? (why not decapitation?) 2) What is the usual cause of death due to being crucified? 3) What range of time could someone hang on the cross for? Slow death with maximal pain and suffering 3 hours to 4 days (96 hours) Respiratory distress = asphyxiation 4) Who was crucifixion usually reserved for? Slaves, foreigners, revolutionaries, vile criminals, sometimes desertion of soldiers

5 What was Christ’s Physical Condition? Is there anything explicit in the bible? No What we do know: He was a carpenter He traveled by foot a great deal Travel leading to crucifixion... How far did He travel (foot) in the days leading to His death?

6 Map of Jerusalem > 2.5 mi in ~36 Hrs What is Hematohidrosis? Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

7 S COURGING Legal preliminary to every Roman execution (39 times [Roman law]) Short whip used (flagrum/flagellum) braided leather thongs small iron balls sharp sheep bone Pain and blood loss would set the stage for hypovolemic shock Purpose... Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

8 S COURGING The prisoner tied to upright post One or two men (lictors) would alternate 1Peter 2:24 Who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree, that we, having died to sins, might live for righteousness -- by whose stripes you were healed. Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

9 S COURGING OF J ESUS Additional physical punishments Crown of thorns Struck on the head Spat on Him Tore the robe off of His back Tearing open wounds Severe blood loss Romans pulled out Christ’s beard Isaiah 50:6: "I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting.”

10 S COURGING OF J ESUS Isaiah 52:14: "..... Just as there were many who were appalled at him -- his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any man and his form marred beyond human likeness” Medically, our Lord’s condition was likely serious to critical And what did they do then?

11 C RUCIFIXION P RACTICES Horizontal crossbar (patibulum) Weighing 75 – 125 lbs 5 – 6 ft long Carried from flogging site to crucifixion site (~650 yards) Usually naked Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

12 C RUCIFIXION P RACTICES Prisoner thrown to ground Drink of myrrh and wine Served as anesthetic Christ refused Wrists nailed to patibulum Hands = wrists Tapered iron spikes Patibulum and prisoner lifted onto the stipes Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

13 CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS Psalm 22:14-15: "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint. My heart has turned to wax; it has melted away within me. My strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth; you lay me in the dust of death.” Shoulder dislocated as patibulum is violently hoisted onto stipes Dehydration due to severe hypovolemia (loss of blood)

14 C RUCIFIXION P RACTICES Invented by the Persians Perfected by the Romans Used as a form of torture and Capital Punishment Designed to produce a slow death with maximal pain and suffering It was the most disgraceful and cruelest method of execution Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

15 M EDICAL A SPECTS OF C RUCIFIXION Fixation of the arms: Nail would crush or sever the sensorimotor nerves in the hand Produce excruciating bolts of fiery pain Paralysis of portion of hand Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

16 M EDICAL A SPECTS OF C RUCIFIXION Fixation of the feet: Feet were nailed to stipes ( 90 o flexion) Between 2 nd and 3 rd toes Severance of nerves and arteries in the foot Pain Additional blood loss Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

17 So what is the usual cause of death? Respiratory Distress or Asphyxia

18 M EDICAL A SPECTS OF C RUCIFIXION Respiration Severe interference with normal respiration (exhale)… (speech) Each breath, victim must push up on nailed feet Pain Reopen wounds Eventually, exhaustion asphyxia Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

19 Have you ever thought? Jesus spoke 7 times in short sentences Difficult to breathe, more difficult to speak Crucifracture Challenge Questions 1)What is the term for breaking of bones while on the cross? 2) Why was this done? (medically) Hasten death 3) What does the word excruciating mean? (language root) Latin – excruciatus – meaning “out of the cross”

20 S PEAR TO H EART Struck with 6 ft infantry spear “…produced a sudden flow of blood and water” Medically unclear Possibly RBCs (blood) and then plasma (water) Blood from inside heart and fluid around lungs or heart John 19:34 Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus' side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. Greek order... Edwards, WD, Gabel, WJ, Hosmer, FE: On The Physical Death Jesus Christ. JAMA 1986; 255(11):

21 Medical Conclusion Jesus Christ endured the most painful and gruesome death at the hand of mankind

22 T HE G REATEST E VENT Our Lord, God and Savior Jesus Christ endured the most painful and gruesome death at the hand of mankind so that He may save us, His creation, and that we may have life everlasting. What’s more different about Christ’s sufferings is not His passion, but His glorious Resurrection. Glory be to God Forever, Amen

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