Vocabulary Introduction Observation (Facts) TheoryLaw Observations/Facts you make with your senses that you know to be true. Quantitative: numbers Qualitative: descriptions that cannot be put in numbers If a theory survives many tests it becomes a law. It summarizes observed experimental facts.
Vocabulary Introduction InferringPrediction An explanation or interpretation of observations. Inferences are based on reasoning, not random guessing
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Uses senses to make observations. Makes inferences or predictions based on observations. Research the topic Form a hypothesis Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis Perform the experiment and record data Draw a conclusion Hypothesis is AcceptedHypothesis is Rejected Go back and redesign your hypothesis Becomes a Theory Accepted many times and proven mathematically Becomes a Law
Variable The one part of an experiment that is manipulated by the scientist Present in the experimental group, not present in the control group. Example: If you were testing the strength of different paper towels (like you did last year) the type of paper towel will be the variable.
A Controlled Experiment Has… Control Group Setup according to “normal” conditions Experimental Group Same as the Control Group, but with the variable They are exactly the same except for the experimental group having the variable(the one difference) The larger the sample size, the more accurate the results Important Points:
Describe in detail your control group Describe in detail your experimental group What conditions are the same between both?
What is the variable (the one difference between the groups)? Describe in detail your control group Describe in detail your experimental group
Hypothesis Formation If The conditions you are setting up (control group vs. experimental group) Then Your predicted results. (what you think will happen) Because Your explanation for your predicted results. (why)
Independent Variable The manipulated/experimental variable This variable is the one you manipulate What you the scientist can change DependentVariable The responding variable This is what you measure in the experiment This variable’s value depends on the independent variable. It shows the results of your manipulation
Experiment… Does adding coffee grinds to plants help them grow faster? Do people prefer Jerry’s Pizza or Lucio’s Pizza? Dep:_____________ Ind:_____________ Dep:_____________ Ind:_____________
Data Tables To Properly Create a Data Table 1. Title ◦ The title must describe what is being done. It must be in the following form. The Relationship Between the Independent Variable and the Dependent Variable 2. Columns & Rows: ◦ Determine the number of rows and columns ◦ First row is for headings ◦ 1 st Column Independent Variable ◦ 2 nd Column Dependent Variable
Data Tables cont.. To Properly Create a Data Table 3. Labels Label each column (what does the data represent) 4. Units Put units for the numbers Example: ml, cm, etc… 5. Sort Data Place in an order, either least to greatest or greatest to least.
Constructing a Graph Title Axis Labels and Units The Relationship Between the Independent and the Dependent Variable The independent variable goes on the x-axis (horizontal) and the dependent goes on the y-axis (vertical
Constructing a Graph cont.. Line Graph vs. Bar Graph Bar Graphs are used to graph information that is not continuous. Example: Mrs. Fugarino believes that student’s behavior in class is directly related to the teacher’s hair color. She conducted a study and discovered the following results which are graphed below.
Steps of Scientific Inquiry Uses senses to make observations. Makes inferences or predictions based on observations. Research the TopicForm a Hypothesis Design a controlled experiment to test the hypothesis Perform the experimentRecord data Draw a Conclusion asdf