Presentation on theme: "The Lifecycle of Writing Utensils (Pens and Pencils)"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Lifecycle of Writing Utensils (Pens and Pencils) By Ramish and JonI.E.DPeriod 1
2 A Brief History50,000-60,000 years ago: Man first used the multi-purpose, good old sharp stone to scratch on walls.The stone and variations of it are used in various ways for tens of thousands of years.The Greeks start using a stylus to scratch figures on wax.Ink, called “Indian Ink” was invented by a Chinese philosopher around 2500 B.C. and became common by 1200 B.C.Romans invent the reed pen made from bamboo.
3 History continued…Black Lead is used in the 16th century, and a pencil is invented in 1838 by Henry Bessemer. An eraser is added in 1858 by Hymen Lipman.Metal nibs appeared in the market in the 19th century.In 1884 the fountain pen was invented by Lewis Waterman, which were unique because they could hold ink inside the pen.Ball point pens become available in 1943, invented by Laszlo Biro in 1938.The felt-tip pen was released in 1960.In the 1980’s, the rollerball pen was invented.Soon, people started innovating previous ideas and came up with mechanical pencils and markers.Charles R. Keeran started working on the mechanical pencil as we know it today around 1915.
4 Major Changes and Impacts From scratching to “writing” with ink and graphite.Containing, or holding, the ink and graphite in the pen/pencil.Style, comfortErasers (on pencil)Materials used (i.e. feather then metal)Impacts:Huge impact: communication. People can communicate in a whole different way by the use of these.Improvements in language; vocabulary and grammar.Lead to many other things such as paper currency, deeds, etc.Negative impact: Materials required consume large amounts of resources when mass-produced.
6 Raise and ExtractWood is extracted from trees and metal is extracted from ore.Graphite is also extracted from the ground/rock.Petroleum or natural gas is extracted for plastic.Oil is extracted from plants and/or animals for ink.Water is taken from any source of water.
7 Process Wood is debarked, carved into slats. Metal is refined or made into alloys.Graphite is shaped into pieces for manufacturer.Petroleum/natural gas is refined and made into plastics.Oil is purified.Water is purified and sterilized.
8 ManufactureWood slats have grooves carved into them, glue and lead placed inside, sealed then carved, and finally painted and imprinted.Plastics and metals are molded into proper shapes and assembled.Oil and/or water are combined with colorants and the resulting ink is freed from any particles, then modified to perfect thickness.Ink is put in cartridges and placed in pens.Everything is packaged in necessary packaging ranging from plastic bags to cardboard boxes.
9 Use Pens and pencils are distributed to stores. Consumers buy pens/pencils.Are used until too small or out of ink.
10 Dispose Usually thrown away. Plastic pens can be melted down. Pens can be refilled with ink or ink cartridges. Individual cartridges are not too hard to recycle.Pencil are small when thrown away. The rubber, glue, and metal reduce biodegradability. Removing these items make it compostable. An option is available to shred it up and use it as sawdust, or use as firewood, or so.A simple thing like a pen or pencil hardly ever goes wrong, but things like expensive pens, fountain pens, and quills can be repaired.
11 SourcesQuaglia, M. (2009, June 29). The history of pens and writing instruments. Retrieved fromBellis, M. (n.d.). A brief history of writing instruments. Retrieved fromA brief journey through the history of writing instruments. (n.d.). Retrieved fromPencil production. (n.d.). Retrieved fromRomanowski, P. (n.d.). Ballpoint pen. Retrieved fromPens. (2011, August 15). Retrieved fromQuill pen. (n.d.). Retrieved fromParker new sonnet rollerball pen. (n.d.). Retrieved fromBamboo reed pens-arundo donax. (n.d.). Retrieved from