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COMP201 Java Programming Topic 6: Exceptions Reading: Chapter 11.

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Presentation on theme: "COMP201 Java Programming Topic 6: Exceptions Reading: Chapter 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 COMP201 Java Programming Topic 6: Exceptions Reading: Chapter 11

2 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 2 Objective/Outline l Objective: Study how to handle exceptions in java l Outline: n Introduction n Java exception classes (Checked vs unchecked exceptions) n Dealing with exceptions –Throwing exceptions –Catching exceptions

3 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 3 Introduction l Causes of errors l User input errors: typos, malformed URL, wrong file name, wrong info in file… l Hardware errors: Disk full, printer out of paper or down, web page unavailable… l Code errors: invalid array index, bad cast, read past end of file, pop empty stack, null object reference…

4 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 4 Introduction l Goals of error handling l Don’t want: l Want: l Return to a safe state and enable user to execute other commands l Allow user to save work and terminate program gracefully.

5 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 5 Introduction l Java exception handling mechanism: Every method is allowed to have two exit paths n No errors occur –Method exits in the normal way –Returns a value –Control passed to the calling code. n If errors occur –Method exits via an alternative exit path –Throws an object that encapsulates the error information –Control passed to exception mechanism that searches for an appropriate exception handler to deal with the error condition

6 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 6 Outline l Introduction l Java exception classes l Dealing with exceptions  Throwing exceptions  Catching exceptions

7 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 7 Java Exception Classes JVM internal errors l Java has many classes for error handling. They are called exception classes

8 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 8 Java Exception Classes java.lang.VirtualMachineError java.lang.LinkageError java.lang. Exception java.lang. Error java.lang. Throwable java.lang.NullPointerException java.lang.ArithmeticException java.lang.RuntimeException java.lang.ClassCastException unchecked checked …

9 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 9 Unchecked exceptions Error : For internal errors in JVM. RuntimeException : Logical errors in program (C++ logical-error).  Bad cast  Out-of-bound array access  Null reference access l Those two exceptions are unchecked  JVM internal errors beyond your control  You should not allow logical errors at the first place

10 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 10 l All other exceptions (C++ runtime_error) are checked, i.e. you have to explicitly handle them. Otherwise compiler errors results in. n Trying to read pass end of file n Open a malformed URL n … AclNotFoundException, ActivationException, AWTException, BadLocationException, ClassNotFoundException, CloneNotSupportedException, DataFormatException, ExpandVetoException, GeneralSecurityException, IllegalAccessException, InstantiationException, InterruptedException, IntrospectionException, InvocationTargetException, IOException, LastOwnerException, … Checked exceptions Can be found in online API

11 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 11 Exceptions l Typically, what methods does an exception class have? n Check IOException

12 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 12 Java Exception Classes l You can define new Exception classes. class FileFormatException extends IOException { // default constructor public FileFormatException() {} //constructor contains a detailed message public FileFormatException(String message) { super( message ); } New Exception class must be subclass of Throwable l Most programs throw and catch objects that derive from the Exception class

13 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 13 Outline l Introduction l Java exception classes l Dealing with exceptions  Throwing exceptions  Catching exceptions

14 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 14 Dealing with Exceptions l Need to consider exceptions when writing each method n Identifying possible exceptions –Check each line of code inside the method l If a method from someone else is called, check API to see if it throws exceptions l If some other method you wrote is called, also check to see if it throws exceptions. n Dealing with exceptions –If checked exceptions might be thrown at any point inside the method, you need to deal with it l Catching exceptions: Handle an exception in the current method. l Throwing exceptions: Don’t know how to handle an exception in the current method and need the caller method to deal with it.

15 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 15 Throw an exception generated by method call : public void readData(BufferedReader in)throws IOException { String s = in.readLine(); StringTokenizer t = new StringTokenizer(s, "|"); name = t.nextToken(); salary = Double.parseDouble(t.nextToken()); int y = Integer.parseInt(t.nextToken()); int m = Integer.parseInt(t.nextToken()); int d = Integer.parseInt(t.nextToken()); GregorianCalendar calendar = new GregorianCalendar(y, m - 1, d); // GregorianCalendar uses 0 = January hireDay = calendar.getTime(); }// from Topic 5 Throwing Exceptions

16 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 16 The method readLine of BufferedReader throws an IOExpcetion, a checked exception We do not deal with this exception in the current method. So we state that the readData method might throw IOException. l If you simply ignore it, compiler error results in. Try this. The nextToken method of StringTokenizer might throw NoSuchElementException. But it is not checked, so we don’t have to deal with it. NoSuchElementException Throwing Exceptions

17 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 17 l Notes: n Can throw multiple types of exceptions public void readData(BufferedReader in) throws IOException, EOFException n Overriding method in subclass cannot throw more exceptions than corresponding method in superclass –If method in superclass does not throw any exceptions, overriding method in subclass cannot either Throwing Exceptions

18 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 18 Outline l Introduction l Java exception classes l Dealing with exceptions  Throwing exceptions  Catching exceptions

19 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 19 Catching Exceptions Catch exceptions with try/catch block try { code more code } catch( ExceptionType e) { handler for this exception } If a statement in the try block throws an exception l The remaining statements in the block are skipped Handler code inside catch block executed. If no exceptions are thrown by codes in the try block, the catch block is skipped.

20 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 20 Dealing with Exceptions l Example: try { average = total/count; System.out.println(“Average is ” + average); } catch (ArithmeticException e) { System.out.println(“Oops: ”+ e); average = -1;} If count is 0, this code will print out something like “ Oops: division by zero ”.

21 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 21 Catching Exceptions public static void main(String[] args) { try { BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader( new FileReader(args[0])); Employee[] newStaff = readData(in); … } catch(IOException exception) { exception.printStackTrace(); }} // This code will exit right away with an error message if something goes wrong in readData or in the constructor of FilerReader (an IOException will be thrown)

22 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 22 Catching Multiple Exceptions Can have multiple catchers for multiple types of exceptions: public static void main(String[] args) { try { BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader( new FileReader(args[0])); Employee[] e = readData(in); … } catch(IOException e1) { exception.printStackTrace(); } catch(ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e2) { System.out.print("No file name provided " ); System.exit(1); } } // What if GeneralSecurityException occurs in the try block? Might throw ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsExpection

23 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 23 Dealing with Exceptions l Note that the following will produce a compiling error. Why? try {…} catch (Exception e3) {…} catch (ArithmeticException e1){…} catch (IOException e2) {…}

24 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 24 Catching Exceptions l Catchers can also re-throw an exception or throw exception that is different from the exception caught. graphics g = image.getGraphics(); try { …} catch (MalformedURLException e) { g.dispose(); throw e; } We wish to dispose the graphics object g, but we don’t know how to deal with the exception. How to create a new exception and throw it?

25 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 25 The finally clause try { code more code} catch( ExceptionType e) { handler for this exception } finally {.. } The finally block is executed regardless whether exceptions are thrown in the try block. l Useful in situations where resources must be released no matter what happened

26 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 26 A caution about the finally clause: Codes in the finally block are executed even there are return statements in the try block public static int f(int n) { try { return n* n; } finally { if ( n==2) return 0; } f(2) return 0 instead of 4! The finally clause

27 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 27 Dealing with Exceptions l Search for handler: Steps: –Tries to find a handler in the Catch block for the current exception in the current method. Considers a match if the thrown object can legally be assigned to the exception handler’s argument. –If not found, move to the caller of this method –If not there, go another level upward, and so on. –If no handler found, program terminates.

28 COMP201 Topic 7 / Slide 28 C++ Notes l Java exception handling similar to that of C++, except: –C++ enforces the throw specifier at run time, while Java checks throws specifier at compile time. –In C++ a function can throw an exception in case of no throw specification, while in Java a method can only throw exceptions advertised. –In C++ you can throw values of any type, while in Java you can only throw objects of a subclass of Throwable.

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