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ACCELLERATION -Acceleration shows how fast velocity changes - Acceleration is the “velocity of velocity”

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Uniform motion Uniform acceleration t x(t) t v(t) t0t0 t v v0v0 ΔxΔx ΔxΔx ΔtΔt t ΔtΔt

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For any motion: For uniform acceleration: Velocity Acceleration Uniform acceleration Uniform motion

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Base equations for 1D uniform acceleration 2 equations 2 quantities can be found -What to remember? -How to use? Two useful equations that can be derived from the base equations See how it was derived on previous slide

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1. speeds up all the time. 2. slows down all the time. 3. speeds up part of the time and slows down part of the time. 4. moves at a constant velocity. time Example: A train car moves along a long straight track. The graph shows the position as a function of time for this train. The graph shows that the train: Steepness of slope is decreasing time position Positive Acceleration = a smile time position Negative Acceleration = a frown

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Example: The graph shows position as a function of time for two trains running on parallel tracks. Which of the following is true? 1. At time t 0, both trains have the same velocity. 2. Both trains speed up all the time. 3. Both trains have the same velocity at some time before t 0. 4. Somewhere on the graph, both trains have the same acceleration. t0t0 t1t1 Same slope at t = t 1

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Position Velocity Acceleration v = slope of x(t) a = slope of v(t) or a = curvature of x(t)

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Position Velocity Acceleration Change in velocity = area under a(t) curve Displacement = area under v(t) curve t0t0 t1t1

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a t Example v(t) from a(t): Draw the velocity vs. time graph that corresponds to the following acceleration vs. time graph. Assume that the velocity at t = 0 is zero. B C v t v t A v t Does your graph look like one of these?

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v t NB: a < 0 but object is speeding up. a t NB: a > 0 but object is slowing up.

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Free fall -Free fall acceleration: g=9.8m/s 2 Using the two base equations: Substitute the following into the base equations: To derive the following equations:

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Example 1. A particle, a material point, is thrown vertically up. Find the maximum height the particle will reach and the time it will take, if you are given the initial height and the initial velocity. Given:Unknown variables: Solution:Answer:

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Example 2. A particle, a material point, is thrown vertically up. Find the velocity with which the particle returns to the point from which it was thrown, and the time this flight will take. The initial height and the initial velocity are given. GivenSolution: AnswerCompare to example 1:

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Example 3, Two particles, material points, are thrown vertically up. One particle is thrown before the other. Find the time at which both objects are at the same height, and the height at which the objects’ intersection occurs. Equations used: Given: Unknown variables: Too many variables but Thus, 3 equations and 3 unknowns. Solution: Answer:

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Free fall (review) Example1: Ball #1 is thrown vertically upwards with a speed of v 0 from the top of a building and hits the ground with speed v 1. Ball #2 is thrown vertically downwards from the same place with the same speed v 0 and hits the ground with speed v 2. Which one of the following three statements is true. Neglect air resistance. A.v 1 >v 2 B.v 1 =v 2 C.v 1

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Graphical Look at Motion: displacement – time curve The slope of the curve is the velocity The curved line indicates the velocity is changing Therefore,

Graphical Look at Motion: displacement – time curve The slope of the curve is the velocity The curved line indicates the velocity is changing Therefore,

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