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Slide 1 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Understanding ‘Force’ This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Understanding ‘Force’ This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Understanding ‘Force’ This document can be freely copied and amended if used for educational purposes. It must not be used for commercial gain. The author(s) and web source must be acknowledged whether used as it stands or whether adapted in any way. Download K4.2_1.0a ‘Forces lead lecture’ Authored by Keith Ross, University of Gloucestershire accessed from date created February 2005

2 Slide 2 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Forces The word force is used widely in everyday English: police force, 'Dad forced me to do it', 'May the force be with you', 'Don’t force it — it might break', G-force.

3 Slide 3 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Aristotle and Newton 1600s Galileo and Newton gave us a new picture, revolutionising the older ideas derived from the Greek philosopher Aristotle. What is interesting is that this same revolution is needed in each one of us. The ideas of Aristotle are descriptive common sense, and we need to undergo a ‘paradigm shift’, just as Newton did, to come to our present scientific understanding.

4 Slide 4 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 1) What can a force do? A push A pull A force at a distance makes something start moving makes something stop moving makes something that's already moving go faster makes something that's already moving go slower causes a turning movement causes something to change shape

5 Slide 5 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture You fire a pebble using a catapult and it hits a tin can. Pull the elastic — causes elastic to change shape. Let it go applying a push to pebble — makes pebble start moving. Pebble make a curved flight path – causes a change in direction Pebble hits can: can pushes pebble — makes it stop moving. Pebble pushes can — makes it change shape.

6 Slide 6 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 1. You take your loaded supermarket trolley round a corner and stop at the check-out. 2. You change direction whilst running on a football pitch by digging your boot studs into the ground. 3. You throw a ball in the air and let it fall to the ground where it bounces. 4. A Catherine wheel firework operates. 5. You kneed dough, or model plasticine. 6. A golf ball makes a curved flight through the air.

7 Slide 7 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 2) Force-at-a-distance Is the wind (blow football, wind on leaves) a force-at-a-distance? Is there really any difference between 'contact' forces (eg pushes and pulls) and forces at a distance (eg gravity and magnetism)?

8 Slide 8 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 3)The natural state/direction of motion (if no further human interference takes place) the air flames from a fire a stone that's thrown in the air water a cart when the horse stops pulling it the sun & moon Earth Air Fire Water

9 Slide 9 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 4)A car travels at a constant 60 mph, along a flat road. There is a forward force from the engine, and a backward force from wind resistance, friction etc. Is the forward force greater than, equal to or less than the combined backward forces?

10 Slide 10 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture A ball has been thrown up mark any forces (neglect air resistance). Half-way up At the top Half-way down Push from hand Gravity Science Issues - Atmosphere Gravity

11 Slide 11 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 6a)When you release objects from a high building on Earth, do do the objects drop at a constant speed, with heavy objects (like a stone or person) dropping faster than lighter objects (like a spider or feather)? Or do the objects gradually pick up speed and fall faster and faster, but with everything, light or heavy, falling together?

12 Slide 12 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture 6b)What happens if you are on the moon and release the same objects? do the objects drop at a constant speed, with heavy objects (like a stone or person) dropping faster than lighter objects (like a spider or feather)? Or do the objects gradually pick up speed and fall faster and faster, but with everything, light or heavy, falling together?

13 Slide 13 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Terminal velocity (not to scale)

14 Slide 14 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Children’s notion of up and down From Children’s Ideas in Science Ch 9

15 Slide 15 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture The children are standing on the Earth. They are all holding stones. They let go of them. Draw lines to show where they all go.

16 Slide 16 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture “The Earth is round” From ‘Children’s Ideas in Science’ p182

17 Slide 17 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Concept cartoons

18 Slide 18 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Foundation/Key stage one Children may say things move because of the wheels, engine or legs, eg 'Its wheels make it roll down the slope'. They may say that things fall because you dropped them. They may say moving objects get tired, or run out of petrol, to explain why they stop. They may say things float because the water is shallow, or the object is ‘light’ (but this might be correct, if ‘light’ means low density). They may say that the faster something moves the more force it has (here the word ‘force’ is more like the scientific word ‘momentum’).

19 Slide 19 of 14 Download K4.2_1.0aForces lead lecture Key stage 2 gravity as a force at a distance. the idea of friction to explain why toy cars slow down The material is important in deciding if something will float — things that are light for their size will float objects at rest are subjected to balanced forces unbalanced forces will lead to objects slowing down, speeding up or changing direction. An object moving at constant speed in a constant direction also has balanced forces (Key Stage 3). This problem avoided at KS2 where it says ‘that forces acting on an object can balance, and that when this happens, an object at rest stays still'.


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