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Sam Tallidis Corinne Hooper Mission Statement: To Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students Through the Applied.

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Presentation on theme: "Sam Tallidis Corinne Hooper Mission Statement: To Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students Through the Applied."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sam Tallidis Corinne Hooper Mission Statement: To Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students Through the Applied Behavior Analysis Model in a 5-week PE unit. DV: Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness IV: Applied Behavior Analysis Model TP: Elementary School Students Agency: Sandy Knoll Elementary School Agency Mission: “To provide opportunities for all children to gain physical, intellectual, emotional, and social skills which will allow them to become lifelong learners and successful members of society. Integral elements to achieving this mission are: developmentally appropriate practices, cooperative learning, multiple intelligences, and recognizing individual needs. Through collaboration with home, school and community, Sandy Knoll students will be able to learn to their maximum potential.” Our Job in Agency: Elementary School Physical Educator

2 Is There a Need To Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students? “There is a need to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness because adults and children are now completely sedentary and seriously under-active” (Barrett, 2011). “Inactivity and the growing rate of sedentary school age children is an epidemic that can be changed by improving students outlook towards physical activity” (Corner, 2012). “There is a need for physical educators to foster positive attitudes towards physical activity in order to encourage children to adopt and maintain healthy and active lifestyles” (Hagger, 1997). ‘Attitudes play an important role in students participation in physical activities because the attitude determines an individual’s willingness to learn. In addition, positive attitudes toward physical education increased participation both in physical education classes and in physical activity outside of school.” (Mcbride, 2012). “In many situations children are put into game situations before they have the skill to adequately participate. The consequence of this is that many children do not learn the skills being taught, are not able to play the sport, and, thus, their attitudes toward physical education and physical activity are negatively impacted” (Silverman, 2012).

3 Theoretical Definition: None of the articles we reviewed theoretically defined “positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness.” As such, we shall construct a theoretical definition for it based on the theoretical definition for: 1) Positive Attitude and 2) Lifetime Fitness. Positive Attitude is theoretically defined as: “A Philosophy of approaching tasks with optimism and confidence that empowers you to increase your achievement” (Success through Self Improvement, 2013). Lifetime Fitness is theoretically defined as: “Physical activities that increase your heart rate, are performed alone or in groups, and are low-impact to minimize injury and allow one to do it throughout one’s lifespan” (Baylor University, 2012 ; Hogan, 2013). Using the theoretical definitions of Positive Attitudes and Lifetime Fitness, our dyad constructed a theoretical definition of “Positive Attitudes towards Lifetime Fitness” that is: “A Philosophy of approaching life-long physical activities that increase your heart rate, are performed alone or in groups, and are low-impact to minimize injury, with optimism and confidence that empowers you to increase your achievements” (Success through Self Improvement, 2013), (Coffman, 2013). It includes areas such as individual leisure activities (backpacking, ballet, hiking, skiing, martial arts, swimming, walking, biking, yoga, meditation, bowling, hunting, golfing, kayaking, surfing) and partner/group activities (badminton, volleyball, tennis, croquet, racquetball, softball, and group fitness classes) (Coffman, 2013) (University, Baylor, 2012).

4 Model of Theoretical Definition: Postive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness (Coffman, Hogan, Self Improvement, University, Baylor) Optimisim "I feel good about them” (Hogan 2013) Individula Leisure Activities Backpacking, Hiking, Ballet, Skiing, Martial arts, Swiming, Walking (University, Baylor 2012) Partner/Group Activites Badminton, Volleyball, Tennis, Croquet, Racquetball, Softball, Group Fitness Classes (University, Baylor 2012) Confidence "I feel I can do them" (Hogan 2013) Individula Leisure Activities Backpacking, Hiking, Ballet, Skiing, Martial arts, Swiming, Walking University, Baylor 2012) Partner/Group Activites Badminton, Volleyball, Tennis, Croquet, Racquetball, Softball, Group Fitness Classes (University, Baylor 2012) Empower "I feel powerful doing them" (Hogan 2013) Indiciduals Leisure Activites Backpacking, Hiking, Ballet, Skiling, Martial arts Swimming, Walking (University, Baylor 2012) Partner/Grou p Activies Badmintion, Volleyball Tennis, Croquet, Racquetball, Softball, Group Fitness Classes (University, Baylor 2012) Achievment "I feel I accomplished something" (Hogan 2013) Individual Leisure Activities Backpacking, Hiking, Ballet, Skiing, Martial arts, Swimming Walking (University, Baylor 2012) Partner/Grou p Activites Badmintion Volleyball, Tennis, Croquet, Racquetball, Softball, Group Fitness Classes (University, Baylor 2012)

5 Test Reflecting Theoretical Definition: Talli-Hooper Assessment: Using a scale of (1-5), personally rate yourself on your attitude/ feeling about each of the following lifetime fitness activities by circling the number that most closely reflects your opinion. 1= I completely disagree with the statement 2= I disagree with the statement 3= I feel neutral toward the statement 4= I agree with the statement 5= I completely agree with the statement Example Questions from the Assessment: Optimism: Feel good about performing a task. Individual Activities: When I go backpacking by myself I feel good about it. 1 2 3 4 5 When I go hiking by myself I feel good about it. 1 2 3 4 5 Group Activities: When I play badminton with a group I feel good about it. 1 2 3 4 5 When I play volleyball with a group I feel good about it. 1 2 3 4 5 Confidence: I feel that I can do something. Individual Activities: I feel that I can go backpacking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel that I can go hiking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5

6 Test Reflecting Theoretical Definition Continued… Group Activities: I feel that I can play badminton with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel that I can play volleyball with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 Empowerment: I feel powerful performing a task. Individual Activities: I feel powerful when I go backpacking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel powerful when I go hiking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5 Group Activities: I feel powerful when I play badminton with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel powerful when I play volleyball with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 Achievement: I feel I accomplished something from completing a task. Individual Activities: I feel accomplished when I go backpacking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel accomplished when I go hiking by myself. 1 2 3 4 5 Group Activities: I feel accomplished when I play badminton with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 I feel accomplished when I play volleyball with a group of people. 1 2 3 4 5 Content Validity: Our assessment measures positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness because we have included each aspect of the theoretical definition of the DV into our assessment. We have assessed on the four components of a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement) and broken them down into each of our individual/group activities that represent lifetime fitness activities.

7 Based on our Positive Attitude Assessment Results, There is a Need to Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students. Evaluation Data: Considering that our Self-Evaluation Assessment consists of 280 possible points (which would define a person with the most positive attitude towards lifetime fitness), we have declared that any score above 168/280 reflects a positive attitude toward lifetime fitness. Any score below 168/280 reflects a negative attitude towards lifetime fitness. There are 70 points that can be earned in each component of a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement), so any score above 35 in each category represents a positive attitude for that component. Example Pre Test Results: The class scored: 155/280 …. Negative Attitude Toward Lifetime fitness The class scored: 100/280 …. Negative Attitude Toward Lifetime Fitness The class scored: 110/280 …. Negative Attitude Toward Lifetime Fitness The class scored: 133/280 …. Negative Attitude Towards Lifetime Fitness

8 Measurable Objectives The students will go from scoring 72/180 to 180/280 on the Talli-Hooper Assessment following the 5- week unit using Applied Behavior Analysis Model Program. Optimism: The students will go from scoring a 15/35 on the individual activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. The students will go from scoring a 15/35 on the group activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Overall, the students will go from scoring 30/70 on the optimism portion of the Talli-Hooper Assessment, to scoring a 60/70 following a 5-week unit using Applied Behavior analysis Model Program. Confidence: The students will go from scoring a 12/35 on the individual activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. The students will go from scoring a 15/35 on the group activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Overall, the students will go from scoring a 28/70 on the confidence portion of the Talli-Hooper Assessment, to 62/70 following a 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Empowerment: The students will go from scoring a 17/35 on the individual activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5 week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. The students will go from scoring a 15/35 on the group activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Overall, the students will go from scoring 31/70 on the empowerment portion of the Talli-Hooper Assessment to scoring a 60/70 following a 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Achievement: The students will go from scoring a 16/35 on the individual activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. The students will go from scoring a 15/35 on the group activities portion of the assessment to a 30/35 on the Talli-Hooper assessment following the 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program. Overall, the students will go from scoring a 27/70 on the achievement portion of the Talli-Hooper Assessment, to scoring a 60/70 following a 5-week unit using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model program.

9 Evidence Based Program to Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students. Program: Applied Behavior Analysis Model Formed as part of the Behaviorism theory of behavior change. Author: B.F. Skinner, 1967.

10 Applied Behavior Analysis Model: The Applied Behavior Analysis Model is an effective and valid model to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in elementary school students. The model provides a 5-step process, while applying the principles of behaviorism to change student behavior. The application of behaviorist principles in ABA, typically involves the following steps: 1. Identifying target behaviors. 2. Establish a baseline for target behaviors. 3. Choose reinforcers and punishers if necessary. 4. Measure changes in target behaviors. 5. Gradually reduce the frequency of reinforcers as behavior improves.

11 Implementing the Applied Behavior Analysis to Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students The first step of this model involves “Identifying behaviors that you want to change.” In our example, we will want to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness activities in our elementary school students. We will implement the first step of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model “identify target behavior” by explaining to the students each of the four components of a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement). Once we have thoroughly explained these four components with examples and definitions of what each component means, and how it can be represented in the classroom, we will explain to students how the overall goal of this program is for them to increase their positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. For example, When teaching students about the empowerment component of a positive attitude, we will provide them with a definition, “I feel powerful when I do something” and will provide them with examples of how performing different physical activities can promote feelings of empowerment. The second step of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model is, “Establishing a baseline.” Establishing a target baseline for the target behavior simply means measuring their frequency of behavior to provide a reference point for later comparison. In our example, we will use the Self-Evaluation Assessment pre-test as a baseline. Our Self-Evaluation assessment is a valid test that uses a series of questions to identify ones behavior towards lifetime fitness as either being negative or positive. The assessment consists of a total of 280 possible points, any score above 168 represents a student having a positive attitude toward lifetime fitness. Knowing this, we will use 168/280 as our baseline score that we want all students to eventually score above. By having our students perform a pre and post-test, we will be able to compare their attitudes towards lifetime fitness before completing our applied Behavior analysis Model and after. Therefore, showing us if the model was successful at promoting positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. We will administer the pre-test within in the first week of the semester and will administer the post-test in the final week of the semester.

12 Continued…. The third step of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model is “choosing reinforcers and punishers.” Before attempting to change behavior, you need to identify the reinforcers and punishers that are likely to work for an individual student. For our example, we have decided to use a sticker system as a means to promote positive reinforcement, which will lead to an increase in positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness amongst our students. When students display any of the four components of a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement) we will reward them by giving them a sticker, which will be added to their sticker chart. Before the semester begins, we will create posters on the wall of the gymnasium that have each student’s name in a section, where students will eventually place their stickers. By using direct observation of their active participation and verbal feedback (quick questions, or recap of activities) we will reward students with a sticker who have shown an improvement in any of the four areas of having a positive attitude. The fourth step of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model “Measuring changes in behavior.” After establishing a baseline and identifying reinforcers we will measure the target behaviors for specified periods to see if changes occur (Within one semester). We will measure our student’s attitude changes by reviewing our sticker boards each week and assessing if the students are demonstrating positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness activities at higher frequencies. In addition, we will have our students take the Self-Evaluation assessment during finals week of the semester, to measure if our students overall attitude towards lifetime fitness have improved. We will aim to have all the students achieve over a 168/280 on the assessment. For the students who scored above 168/280, our aim will be to have their score increase instead of decrease by the end of the semester. The fifth and final step of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model is “Reduce frequency of reinforcers.” Reducing the frequency of reinforcers helps maintain the desired increase in positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. By gradually reducing the amount of stickers that we give to our students, we will help them develop internal motivation to have a positive attitude towards lifetime fitness, opposed to extrinsic motivation. By reducing the amount of stickers we give our students, they will begin to display positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness for their own personal reasons, opposed to only displaying positive attitudes to receive a sticker. After implementing all five steps of the Applied Behavior Analysis Model over the course of a school semester, we believe that students will have an increase in positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. We will reduce the amount of stickers we give to the students by only providing stickers to students who demonstrate a positive attitude toward lifetime fitness without being asked to demonstrate it by a teacher.

13 Here’s What Our 5-week Unit Will Look Like: 5-Week Unit Using the Applied Behavior Analysis Model to Promote Positive Attitudes Towards Lifetime Fitness in Elementary School Students. Week 1 Monday: Introduction: (Talli-Hooper Pretest). Assesses need to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in the elementary school students we are teaching. Week 1 Wednesday: Passive: Teach students what it means to have a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement) towards lifetime fitness, as well as what lifetime fitness activities are. Main focus will be on optimism once the four components have been explained. Explain to the students what backpacking, hiking and badminton are, then explain how each is performed. Active: Take the students backpacking and hiking (Individual activities). Then have students play badminton (Partner activities). Students will fill out their at home long including what activity was performed and how the child felt after performing the activity. Week 2 Monday: Passive: Teach students about what it means to have confidence. Relate how having confidence can improve performance on an activity. Explain how ballet and skiing are individual activities and demonstrate how they are performed. Active: Have the students practice ballet and take the students skiing (Individual activities). Have students fill out home log on their mood following the individual activities. Have students describe their level of confidence before and after the activity. Week 2 Wednesday: Passive: Continue to teach the students about what it means to have confidence. Explain to the students what volleyball and tennis are. Provide the students with the rules and what these activities look like when they are performed. Explain how having confidence can improve one’s volleyball and tennis abilities. Active: Have the students play volleyball and tennis (partner activities). The students will fill out their home log after performing these activities. The students should right about their mood after the activity, as well as their confidence levels before and after completing the activity.

14 Continued… Week 3 Monday: Passive: Teach students about what it means to have empowerment. Relate how having empowerment can improve performance on an activity. Explain how martial arts is an individual activity and demonstrate how martial arts are performed. Active: Have the students practice martial arts (Individual activity). Have students fill out home log on their mood following the individual activity. Have students describe their level of confidence before and after the activity. Week 3 Wednesday: Passive: Continue to teach the students about what it means to have empowerment. Explain to the students what croquet and racquetball are. Provide the students with the rules and what these activities look like when they are performed. Explain how having confidence can improve one’s croquet and racquetball abilities. Active: Have the students play croquet and racquetball (partner activities). The students will fill out their home log after performing these activities. The students should right about their mood after the activity, as well as their confidence levels before and after completing the activity. Week 4 Monday: Passive: Teach students about what it means to have achievement. Relate how feeling achievement can improve performance on an activity. Explain how swimming and walking are individual activities and demonstrate how swimming and walking is performed. Active: Have the students practice swimming and walking (Individual activities). Have students fill out home log on their mood following the individual activity. Have students describe their level of confidence before and after the activity. Week 4 Wednesday: Passive: Continue to teach the students about what it means to feel achievement. Explain to the students what softball is. Provide the students with the rules and what softball looks like when it is played. Explain how feeling achievement can improve one’s softball abilities. Active: Have the students play softball (partner activities). The students will fill out their home log after performing these activities. The students should right about their mood after the activity, as well as their confidence levels before and after completing the activity. Week 5 Monday: Passive: Re-explain what it means to have positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. Review students for knowledge of the four components of a positive attitude (optimism, confidence, empowerment, achievement). Lastly, explain to students what lifetime fitness classes are and how they are performed. Active: Have the students participate in a group fitness class (Group activity). Have students fill out home log on their mood following the group activity. Week 5 Wednesday: Passive: Briefly review all of the components of a positive attitude and review all of the lifetime fitness activities that have been covered during the 5-week unit. Active: (Talli-Hooper Posttest). Assesses if need to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in the elementary school students we are teaching has been met. Evaluate and go over the Talli-Hooped test with the students.

15 How can the Behavior Change Model identify barriers and facilitators to our Program? 1. I know what to do. 2. I know how to do it. 3. I want to do it. 4. I believe I can do it. 5. I have an environment that supports me doing it. We will ask our elementary school students: 1.Do you know what to do to participate in our program? Do you know what having a positive attitude towards lifetime fitness activities is? 2.Do you know how to participate in our program? Do you know how to participate in lifetime fitness activities? 3.Do you want to participate in our program? Do you want to have a positive attitude towards lifetime fitness? 4.Do you believe that you are able to participate and complete our program? Do you believe that you can have a positive attitude towards lifetime fitness? 5.Do you have an environment that will support you participating in our program? Do you have family or friends that will help you develop a positive attitude towards lifetime fitness by participating in our program?

16 What is Our Evaluation Design? (Pre-test/Post-test Design) O X O Self Evaluation Pre-test Intervention: 1 semester long Self Evaluation Post-test Positive Attitude Assessment Applied Behavior Analysis Program Positive Attitude Assessment Mean Score: 70/280 (B.F. Skinner, 1967). Mean Score: 220/280 Threats to Internal Validity: Because we do not have a control group, these are the threats: Mortality: Some students will choose to dropout of our Applied Behavior Analysis Program. Selection: Some students may choose that they do not want to participate in our program.

17 Mission Fit Question Mission fit Question: Was our dyad able to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in elementary school students through a semester-long Applied Behavior Analysis Model program? Answer: Our dyad will know that our Applied Behavior Analysis program was successful at promoting positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in elementary school students, if the students show an improved score on the self-evaluation assessment. When students improve on their self-evaluation assessment results, we will know that we have met our mission. Example: Class mean pre-test score= 155/280. Class mean post- test score= 255/280. The class improved their score by 100 points, which indicates an increase in positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness.

18 Communication and Marketing How can you use social media or traditional media to market your program? Develop at least one marketing tool related to your program and show it/link it to the page. We created a classroom website to help market and promote our program. We created a fun and interactive website for the students to visit and check out what's going in class. Our website is a great marketing tool because across the site you see resources and pictures promoting positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. The website can be viewed by clicking: http://713458508687979883.weebly.com/http://713458508687979883.weebly.com/ How can you use social/traditional media to communicate with the members of your program about the program? By creating a classroom website, we are able to communicate with our students about our program and expectations that are implied to participate in the program. On our site, students will find the "What's Up" tab, which serves as our communication tool. The “What’s Up” tab takes students to an interactive blog that details what is going on in class each week during the Applied Behavior Analysis Unit. The students are able to access the schedule and are free to make comments/ ask questions about each activity and topic that is covered daily. The website can be viewed by clicking: http://713458508687979883.weebly.com/ http://713458508687979883.weebly.com/

19 Grant Information Grant Agency: Carol M. White Physical Education Program Program Mission: The Carol M. White Physical Education Program (PEP) provides grants to local educational agencies (LEAs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) to initiate, expand and improve physical education for students in grades K-12. http://www2.ed.gov/programs/whitephysed/index.htmlhttp://www2.ed.gov/programs/whitephysed/index.html Compatibility with our mission: The Carol M. White Physical Education Program mission is beneficial to our dyad mission because the school we work at could receive a large sum of money that could be used to improve the physical education program. By developing our PE program, we will have a better chance of promoting positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness.

20 Grant Information An example of a grant that would benefit our mission would be the SPARK Grant, offered by The Carol M. White Physical Education Program. The SPARK Grant is offered to k-12 school’s to help improve their physical education program. Amount: $100,000 to $750,000

21 App’s for Promoting Positive Attitudes Any positive attitude app will help with our programming. For example, Positive Thinking app is effective in inspiring and motivating individuals to be more positive. We could implement the strategies from this app into our programming as an effective way to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness. Retrieved from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.MikeTheAndroidFarmer.Quot esPositiveThinking&hl=en https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.MikeTheAndroidFarmer.Quot esPositiveThinking&hl=en Another App that we found is Endomondo Sports Tracker. Endomondo tracks duration, distance, calories and more in real-time, offers audio feedback on the way, and lets your friends pep-talk you live while you’re exercising. Set a time, distance or calorie goal and get more advanced audio coaching. You can also set a previous workout or a friend's performance as your target for additional motivation. The app keeps a full log of your training and is ideal for running, cycling, walking and other distance based sports. Time to free your endorphins! Also, the app includes a detailed list of fitness activities that can be performed in a gym or at home to guarantee that people will always have a fitness activity to choose from. https://www.myfitnesspal.com/apps/show/13https://www.myfitnesspal.com/apps/show/13

22 Webliography Barrett, B. (2001). Play now, play later: Lifetime fitness implications. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 72(8), 35- 39. http://eric.ed.gov/?q="lifetime fitness"&id=EJ636273 Coffman, M. (2013, July). Lifetime Fitness Activities. Retrieved from: http://healthyliving.azcentral.com/lifetime-fitness-activities- 6176.html Corner, A., Corner, K., & Vandertie, J. (2012). The New P.E. 93(7), 21-25. http://www.kappanmagazine.org/content/93/7/21.full.pdf html Hagger, M. (1997). Children's physical activity levels and attitudes towards physical activity. European Physical Education Review, 3, 144-164. Retrieved from http://epe.sagepub.com/content/3/2/144.abstract Hogan, Patricia. (2013). Northern Michigan University Professor. Personal Interview. (2013). Mcbride, R. (2012). Students’ attitudes toward an after-school physical activity program. SAGE Journal, 19, 99-109. http://epe.sagepub.com/content/19/1/91.full.pdf+html http://epe.sagepub.com/content/19/1/91.full.pdf+html Silverman, S. (2012). American kinesiology Association., Retrieved from http://www.americankinesiology.org/kinesiology- colloquium/kinesiology-colloquium/teaching-skill-and-influencing-attitude-in-physical-educationhttp://www.americankinesiology.org/kinesiology- colloquium/kinesiology-colloquium/teaching-skill-and-influencing-attitude-in-physical-education Success Through, S. I. (2013, May). The Positive Attitude Definition What is it and How to Maintain it. Retrieved from http://www.successthroughselfimprovement.com/being-positive/the-positive-attitude-definition-what-is-it-and-how-to-maintain- it/ http://www.successthroughselfimprovement.com/being-positive/the-positive-attitude-definition-what-is-it-and-how-to-maintain- it/ University, B. (2012). Lifetime fitness activity labs. Retrieved from http://www.baylor.edu/soe/hhpr/index.php?id=57235

23 Reflection: Sam Tallidis: Completing the HL-367 major project has helped me academically in a variety of ways. One way that completing this project has helped me, is by allowing me to grow and develop an understanding of the program plan/evaluation model process. The program plan/evaluation model involves assessing a need in a situation, finding measurable objectives that reflect the dependent variable, finding an evidence-based program that can be used to change the dependent variable, implementing the evidence-based program, and lastly, evaluating to see if the program was successful. Completing this project has taught me how to complete each of these five steps for our mission statement (Promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in elementary school students), as well as how to implement the program plan evaluation model to any situation. Throughout this semester, I have applied the program plan/evaluation model in many scenarios (class project, in-class assignments, in-class quizzes), which have provided me with the knowledge and experience to apply the five steps of the model to any situation to create a program plan evaluation model with that will change a dependent variable in a target population. Completing this project has also helped me develop a successful method of self-directed learning. Compared to most college classes, HL-367 provides a high demand for students to direct their own learning and create their own learning outcomes. This project had helped me learn how to manage my time, in order to complete each section of the major project before it was due. In addition, completing a project in which the students solve each problem themselves, instead of asking the professor for answers, has taught me how to think abstractly and creatively to come up with solution to issues, without asking someone else for help. Besides this project helping self-direct my learning, it has also taught me how to think critically to analyze the validity of research studies and the findings they purport. Because there are very few research article that are written to directly support our dyad mission statement or dependent variable, it was up to us to decide what articles were valid and relevant to our mission. Having to find at least 18 articles provided me with a lot of practice looking through abstracts and full text articles, to try and answer the four research questions. After completing section two of the review of literature, I felt much more confident analyzing articles to pick out their key points, and assess whether it related to our mission statement, or not. Lastly, working on this project helped me develop collaborative learning to accomplish the dyads mission statement. This project helped me learn how to evenly-distribute work between partners, so that both partners understood the work that was being completed by the other partner, without being the one who completed the work. While completing this project, I learned how to manage my time more efficiently, in order to meet with my partner and compile the work we had completed. Overall, this project was a great way to develop collaborative learning and taught me the importance and purpose of working with a partner to accomplish a common mission.

24 Reflection: Corinne Hooper: Reflecting back on HL-367 I can confidently say that this project has increased my knowledge of program planning and evaluation. For the last few weeks we’ve been immersed in terms like assessing the need, identifying measurable objectives, plan an evidence-based program and implementation, and evaluate to see if we have met our objectives/need. After weeks of sections, research, and revisions we have a finished project. We set out with the mission to promote positive attitudes towards lifetime fitness in elementary students through education. Sam and I’s dedication to meet our mission is evident in our finished project. We worked consistently every week outside of class to accomplish our goals. At times this project seemed impossible with the amount of work each week but I’ve only realized now that it was necessary. Patty’s intense work load and high demand for excellence only fueled our need to effectively meet our mission. Along with a personal interest in fitness and promoting a positive outlook I truly enjoyed the research and development of this project. HL-367 is a student directed course where we managed our learning and created our outcomes. That ability to be self-guided throughout this semester has increased my professionalism. The exposure to program planning and evaluation and Patty’s instructions has aided my growth as a professional in the field. The challenges we encountered week after week was the appropriate practice we needed to thoroughly understand the material. I’m coming away from this class with the ability to apply HL- 367 methods to any need. I take a great deal of pride in this finished project. I’m proud of the collaboration Sam and I achieved while creating this project. The work we did together allowed us to think critically and determine what was appropriate for our mission. Our other supporters like Patty and our fellow students also assisted in us achieving our goal.


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