2CHAPTER 23 – America & the Great War (1914-1920) SEC. 1 - WORLD WAR I BREAKS OUTTHE ORIGINS OF THE WARA.) There were many reasons for the quick spread of war. Among them were:1.) NATIONALISM - 2 definitions apply to this time period.a.) pride in ones own country.b.) the desire of people ruled by others, to throw off this foreign rule and to create their own nation. (Ex.: Serbs, Croats, Slovaks, Czechs, etc2.) IMPERIALISM - the struggle for colonies (could lead to war among imperialistic countries)a.) “Have” Nations - countries with large colonial empires (Great Britain)b.) “Have-Not” Nations - countries who did NOT HAVE large colonial empires but who wanted colonies. (Germany & Italy)3.) ARMS RACE - encouraged each nation to equate its own preservation with its military strength.4.) BALANCE OF POWER SYSTEM (AKA: ALLIANCE SYSTEM) - every nation tries to increase its own strength by securing as many allies as possible.a.) TRIPLE ENTENTE - England, France & Russiab.) TRIPLE ALLIANCE - Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy
3B.) The Spark that led to war was the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofie on June 28, They were killed in Sarajevo the capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina by a member of the BLACK HAND.1.) The Archduke was the heir to the Austrian- Hungarian Throne.2.) Bosnia-Herzegovina - a province that was taken over by A-H in They wanted their independence.3.) The Black Hand - a secret Serbian Nationalistic Society that used terrorism to win independence for all Serbs. (Serbia was an independent Slavic country to the south of Bosnia-Herzegovina)a.) Gavrilo Princip - the assassinator of the archduke. He was 19 years old & caused the death of 7 million soldiers.
4Archduke Franz Ferdinand, his wife Sophie & their children
5Gavrilo Princip said he “looked away” when he took his pistol & killed the Archduke & the Archduchess.
6C.) Austria, with Germany’s support, declared war on Serbia on July 28, By Aug. 12th all of Europe was at war.1.) Russia “Protector of the Slavs” - moved into protect Serbia from the Austrian attack.2.) Germany - Austria’s ally, declared war on Russia on Aug. 1, 1914.3.) France, prewar ally of Russia, did not declare its neutrality - so Germany declared war on France on Aug. 3, 1914.4.) Great Britain - prewar ally of France & Russia, declared war on Germany on Aug 4th and on Austria-Hungary on Aug. 12th.5.) Italy - a prewar ally of Germany & A-H, declared its neutrality until it signed the Treaty of London in 1915 w/ France, Gr. Br. and Russia, in which Italy was promised overseas colonies in exchange for going to war with Austria.******NOTE: the King of England was the cousin to both the Czar and the Kaiser. The Czar’s wife, Alexandria was also a cousin to the Kaiser & the cousin to the King of England.
8II. THE EARLY WEEKS OF THE WAR A.) The German plan of attack was called the SCHLIEFFEN PLAN which was to knife through Belgium into Northern France & with a great right hook surround Paris and trap the French armies. After capturing Paris, there would be a quick transfer of troops to the Eastern Front for what was expected to be a longer fight against the Russians. 1.) the Plan failed because it took 18 days to cross Belgium not the planned for 6 days. This gave the British time to arrive & then the Germans in their rush to reach Paris exposed their Right Flank. B.) The French High Command used FRENCH WAR PLAN 17 - this plan had a 2 prong offensive – no defense !!!! 1.) 1 prong would strike into ALSACE-LORRAINE 2.) the Second prong would join up with the BEF (BRITISH EXPEDITIONARY FORCES) & move into Belgium and counter the German offensive there. 3.) This plan failed because it did not account for defending any ground - just attacking German lines. The loss of life was extremely high.
9C. ) Among the opening battles of the war were: 1 C.) Among the opening battles of the war were: 1.) BATTLE OF MONS - 30,000 British fought against 90,000 Germans. The British held the Germans - some say Angels from heaven came down to protect the British soldiers. Eventually the British had to retreat into France. 2.) 1ST BATTLE OF LE MARNE (MIRACLE OF LE MARNE) - Once the Germans exposed their right flank the French were ready w/ an attack. SEPT. 7, 1914 – GENERAL GALLIENI, the military governor of France, commandeered the Paris Taxicabs to rush troops to the front. the French army under the command of GEN. JOFFRE were able to stun the Germans who then tried to retreat. Because roads & bridges were closed behind them, the Germans had to “DIG-IN” to fight & so began the TRENCH WARFARE that was to last for 4 years.
10Battle of Le Marne – Paris Taxis arriving at the front
11D. ) Among the most important battles of the war before U. S D.) Among the most important battles of the war before U.S. involvement included:
121.) TANNENBURG - The Germans crushed the Russians at this battle on the Eastern Front. The Russians lost over 30,000 men & more than 92,000 more surrendered to the Germans. The Russians fought on for another 3 years until the Second Revolution pulled them out of the war.(The first Revolution replaced the Czar w/ a “republican” form of gov’t. The second Revolution created a communist gov’t. who renamed Russia the Soviet Union & who made peace w/ Germany.)General Samsonov came out highly critical of Rennenkampf at the Battle of Mukden in 1905. Samsonov would again have cause to critique Rennenkampf's lack of assistance at the Battle of Tannenberg in 1914.
132. ) CAPORETTO - Took place on the front between Italy & Austria 2.) CAPORETTO - Took place on the front between Italy & Austria. It was fought in the fall of 1917 when a group of Austrians & Germans defeated a force of Italians in the Alps. the Italian losses were so high they retreated into Italy to protect it from any future attacks.
143. VERDUN - this battle lasted nearly 1 year – the Germans were “trying to Bleed the French White” & capture the supply lines.(Sacred Way - nickname given to the French supply line).the French were ordered by GEN. PETAIN –“THEY SHALL NOT PASS !”the French were able to hold the Germans & they did NOT pass so the French won TECHNICALLY.However, the French lost approx.. 315,000 men & the Germs. lost approx.. 337,000 men of that 150,000 were never buried -(that’s why people say the ground is still soft there because of all the rotting bodies.)The battle, which lasted from 21 February 1916 until 19 December 1916 caused over an estimated 700,000 dead, wounded and missing. The battlefield was not even a square ten kilometers. From a strategic point of view there can be no justification for these atrocious losses.
15The Cemetery at Verdun today. This is the WWI portion of the cemetery The Cemetery at Verdun today. This is the WWI portion of the cemetery. The obelisk in the background is where 150,000 unknowns are buried.
164. LE SOMME - (near Amiens) - Bombardment began July 1, 1916 – the British were trying to capture the German supply linesno land was gained by either side & the casualties were very high for both sides.British lost 60,000 men the first day alone(at one point there was a young lieutenant kicking a soccer ball on the battle field) –at the end of the battle the British lost a total of 420,00, the French (who came to reinforce them) lost 195,000 and the Germans lost 650,000.The bloodiest battle in human history was going to be fought from July 1916 to November 1916 near the River Somme in northern France. Here the Allied forces tried to break throughout the German lines and at the same time draw some of the German forces away from the Battle of Verdun . However with more than one million casualties in the Battle of Somme the losses would exceed those at Verdun.firstworldwar.olemarius.net
17E.) By March the Germans were counting their successes and were ready to attack the Western Front before American Troops could become involved in the war TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK - was signed in March 1918 between Germany & the new “Soviet Union” according to this treaty: a.) German received all of Poland & the Ukraine b.) Soviets had to help feed the German ArmyTREATY OF BUCHAREST - was signed between Germany & Rumania - Rumania had to give Germans money & food as part of this treaty.
18III. AMERICAN NEUTRALITY A.) When war broke out Pres. Wilson wanted the U.S. to remain neutral - “in thought and deed”. This proved to be impossible. 1.) the U.S. is a country of Immigrants & each group had its own reasons to support the ALLIES (FR., GR.BR., & RUSSIA) OR THE CENTRAL POWERS (GER., A-H., BULGARIA, TURKEY.) a.) Majority of Americans - supported the Allied Powers because of our traditional ties with Britain & France. b.) German-Americans - supported the Central Powers because they felt Germany was protecting itself from French & Russian aggression. c.) Irish Americans - supported the Central Powers because they hate the British for taking over Ireland. d.) Eastern European Jews - supported Central Powers because of their hatred of the Czar of Russia. 2.) Propaganda was used by both sides to influence public opinion. a.) ALLIES - used the major American newspapers to get point of view across. b.) CENTRAL POWERS - used immigrant newspapers
19b.) included in the list of contraband was food & medical supplies. B.) Both the British Blockade & German Submarine warfare challenged American Neutrality.1.) British Blockaded all countries in the War Zone (North Sea). Any articles that could give direct or indirect aid to Germany were subject to lawful seizure at sea. These articles of war are called CONTRABAND.a.) Among the neutral countries Britain blockaded: NORWAY, SWEDEN, DENMARK, & THE NETHERLANDSb.) included in the list of contraband was food & medical supplies.c.) to get through the blockades ALL SHIPS had to have their Cargoes searched & in some cases seized.d.) the U.S. protested Great Britain & said they were violating the “rights of neutrals” to sail the high seas.
202. ) German Submarine Warfare was an even bigger problem to the U. S 2.) German Submarine Warfare was an even bigger problem to the U.S. than the British Blockade.a.) There was no Precedent for the use of U-Boats in war. U-Boats were easily sunk if they surfaced.b.) Germany declared the area around the British Isles a War Zone.(1) All enemy ships would be sunk WITHOUT WARNING(2) Neutral ships sailing in war zone would not be safe.(3) Americans were warned not to travel on the ships of BELLIGERENT COUNTRIES.(4) Pres. Wilson protested saying that Americans had the right to “FREEDOM OF THE SEAS”
213.) THE LUSITANIA - WAS A BRITISH PASSENGER LINER that was sunk off of the Irish coast on May 7, 1915 by German U-Boat # 20.a.) The Lusitania was carrying war materials therefore, it was logical target of the Germans.b.) It sunk in less than 20 mins. & over 1,198 people killed - of that 94 were children and 128 were Americans.c.) this changed American feelings about the war more than any other incident. In addition, Sec. of State William Jennings Bryan resigned and Robert Lansing who was pro-British became the new Sec. of State.
25SEC. 2 - THE UNITED STATES GOES TO WAR THE ROAD TO WARA.) In March, the Germans sunk a French passenger liner, the Sussex , wounding Americans. Pres. Wilson shot off an ultimatum stating that if German submarines did not stop sinking passenger liners than the U.S. would be forced to break off diplomatic relations with Germany.1.) The Germans, in response, signed the SUSSEX PLEDGE, this pledge stated:a.) Germany would NOT sink any more passenger liners without warningb.) The U.S. was responsible to force Great Britain to keep international law & not allow them to block the transport of food and medical supplies for the civilian population.2.) the U.S. population broke into 2 groups after the passenger liner sinking's.a.) PREPAREDNESS ADVOCATES –led by Teddy Roosevelt wanted the U.S. to prepare for war - just in case !b.) PEACE-MINDED PROGRESSIVES -led by William Jennings Bryan wanted the U.S. to remain neutral no matter what.
263.) As a result of these debates, Congress passed the NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT which: a.) increased the size of the army from 90,000 men to 175,000 men b.) established Reserved Officer Training Camps (ROTC) c.) set aside $313 Million to build up the navy. d.) Council of National Defense - was established to mobilize the country’s resources and to begin a ship building program. 4.) In the Election of Pres. Wilson won reelection with the slogan “HE KEPT US OUT OF WAR”. His opponent, Charles Evans Hughes ran on the Republican ticket as a Preparedness Advocate.
27B. ) After the election of 1916, Pres B.) After the election of 1916, Pres. Wilson made a speech in January 1917 in which he stated that there must be “ONLY A PEACE BETWEEN EQUALS CAN LAST THIS MUST BE A PEACE WITHOUT VICTORY”. He also sent his personal friend, Colonel Edward M. House, to negotiate a peace between the warring nations.1.) FEB. 1, Germany resumed Unrestricted Submarine Warfare - the U.S. responded by breaking off diplomatic relations.2.) March 1, a secret cable - decoded by the British - from German foreign Secretary - ALFRED ZIMMERMAN, to the German Ambassador in Mexico was made public. According to the ZIMMERMAN NOTE:a.) Unrestricted Submarine Warfare was resumingb.) If the U.S. should join the war on the side of the Allies, than Mexico should join on the side of Germany.c.) If Mexico joined Germany then Germany would help them get back TEXAS, ARIZONA, & NEW MEXICO.
28 Mexican territories. In Dark Green American territory promised to Mexico. In lighter Green American territory that was once Mexican territory. Outlined in lighter green
29C.) On April 2, 1917 - Pres. Wilson addressed Congress and asked for a declaration of war. “IT IS A FEARFUL THING TO LEAD THIS GREAT PEACEFUL PEOPLE INTO WAR, INTO THE MOST TERRIBLE AND DISASTROUS OF ALL WARS, CIVILIZATION ITSELF SEEMING TO BE IN THE BALANCE. BUT, THE RIGHT IS MORE PRECIOUS THAN PEACE, AND WE SHALL FIGHT FOR THE THINGS WHICH WE HAVE ALWAYS CARRIED NEAREST OUR HEARTS.... THE WORLD MUST BE MADE SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY”1.) On April 4, the U.S. Senate approved the war message 82 to 6:April 6, the House voted 373 to 50 for war.2.) Few Americans volunteered for military service. On May 18, 1917 congress passed the SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT which required men between ages 21 & 30 to register for the draft.a.) to get even more men the age limits were changed to 18 to years old.b.) 2.8 million men had been drafted by the end of World War I.c.) African-Americans, Native Americans & others served in segregated units with white officers. A few (1,400) African- Americans were trained as officers and the 10, Americans Indians in the army were offered citizenship in the United States.
31II. AMERICAN TROOPS AND IDEALS HELP THE ALLIES WIN THE WAR A.) Americas entry into the war came none to soon because the Allies were facing enormous losses.1.) French suffered ghastly losses & 10 divisions of the army mutinied.2.) The Allied offensive in the Balkans - at the Battle of Gallipoli - failed.3.) German U-Boats were sinking 1 out of 4 Allied ships.4.) Russia was out of the war as a result of the TREATY OF BREST-LITOVSK signed in March,1918(Feb Czar Nicholas II abdicated the throne and a provisional gov’t. run by the Duma took over. The Provisional Gov’t. was overthrown in Oct by the Bolsheviks led by Nikolai (V.I.)Lenin and a Communist state was formed and called the Soviet Union.)
32B.) The U.S. Navy had been building up its strength since early 1916 & under the command of ADMIRAL WILLIAM S. SIMS they were able to help the Allied cause.1.) the U.S. established 45 naval bases around the world. (as far north as MURMANSK,RUSSIA and as far south as GREECE.2.) The U.S. & British Navies patrolled the NORTH SEA & bottled up the Germans.3.) The Navy laid a mine barrier that stretched across the NORTH SEA - caused many submarines not to make it out of the North Sea.4.) THE CONVOY SYSTEM - was so effective that only 1 American transport ship was sunk by German U-Boats.a.) CONVOY - when merchant & transport ships are protected by destroyers & other naval ships.
33C. ) Pres. Wilson appointed GENERAL JOHN J C.) Pres. Wilson appointed GENERAL JOHN J. “BLACK JACK” PERSHING as Commander in Chief of the American Expeditionary Forces (A.E.F.). (Pershing served in Cuba, the Philippines, & as commander of a force that went into Mexico's after Pancho Villa)1.) Pershing landed in France early in June, 1917 and on July 4, 1917 led his troops in a march through Paris to the grave of the MARQUIS de Lafayette where his aide said ”LAFAYETTE WE ARE HERE !!!” “LAFAYETTE NOUS VOCI !”. to the Heartfelt cheers of the French people.
35b.) telephone & telegraph lines 2.) Fall, 1917 there were more than 2 million American forces in France. To supply & maintain this huge army the Americans built:a.) huge docks & R.R. lines.b.) telephone & telegraph linesc.) had over 17,000 Freight cars & more than 40,000 trucks shipped overd.) built training camps, hospitals, storage houses, & ammunition dumps.3.) Pershing insisted that American troops have time for training behind the lines & that the American Army would fight under ITS OWN TOP COMMAND – not as reinforcements for the British & French.
36Field Marshall FochGeneral John J. “Black Jack” Pershing
37D.) On March 21, 1918 the Germans launched a powerful campaign called the “PEACE OFFENSIVE” - to end the war before American troops could get involved. By the end of May they were at the Marne River only 37 miles from Paris.1.) Allied troops were unified to meet the German advance under the command of French General FIELD MARSHALL FOCH. FIGHTING DESPERATELY, FRENCH, BRITISH, BELGIAN & AMERICAN TROOPS finally stopped the German Advance.a.) May 28, American First Division captured the town of CANTIGNYb.) May 31 to June 1, American Third Division w/ help from the French were able to hold the Germans only 40 miles away from Paris at the BATTLE OF CHATEAU-THIERRYc.) June 6 to 25, The Second Division & the 4th Marines Brigade held back the Germans & eventually cleared the wood of enemy forces at THE BATTLE OF BELLEAU WOOD.d.) July 15, 1918 near Reims the American 30th and 38th infantry regiments of the 3rd Division were able to hold the German offensive at the SECOND BATTLE OF THE MARNEe.) July 18, Field Marshall Foch planned an Allied counterattack spearheaded by the First & Second American Divisions w/ the French Morocco Division. the Germans began to Fall Back.
38German soldiers at CANTIGNY notice the “flame thrower” on the back of the German solider. It was consider part of the chemical warfare used by the Germans in the war.
422.) In the MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE - a separate American army under Pershing’s command (500,000 men) supported by French troops & British planes launched a powerful counterattack. a.) Sept near Verdun - THE BATTLE OF ST. MIHIEL was fought - After 3 days of savage hand to hand combat this key section of the Southern front was safely under American control. (1) the Americans captured 16,000 German P.O.W.’s & over 400 German artillery pieces. b.) THE BATTLE OF SEDAN - Americans against heavy artillery & machine gun fire were able to capture the city of Sedan (47 day battle) c.) the fighting in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive involved 1.2 million Americans. We suffered 120,000 casualties, but we were able to push the German line back & capture 28,000 prisoners & large supplies of war materials.
44III. ALLIED VICTORY A.) Under such hammer blows, German morale began to sag & Germany’s allies lost heart.1.) Sept Bulgaria surrendered unconditionally2.) Oct Turkey surrendered3.) Nov. 3, Austria signed an armistice w/ the ItaliansB.) Convinced that the war was lost, KAISER WILHELM II fled to the Netherlands. leaving his country in the hands of revolutionaries.1.) NOV. 11, THE 11TH HOUR OF THE 11TH DAY OF THE 11TH MONTHGermany signed an armistice w/ the Allies in a R.R. car in Compiegnea.) Kaiser Wilhelm died in Doorn, Holland in living to see his Germany conquer France.2.) According to the Armistice signed by the Germans:a.) German evacuation of FRANCE, BELGIUM, LUXEMBOURG, & ALSACE-LORRAINEb.) German surrender all war materials including the whole NAVYc.) Prisoners, money, & property from occupied territories must be returned.d.) Germany gave up all gains from the TREATIES OF BREST- LITOVSK & BUCHARESTe.) Allies occupied all German Territory WEST of the Rhine Riverf.) Allies occupied an 18 mile strip of land on the EAST side of the Rhine River. (the Rhineland)
45Title: Armistice Carriage Caption: 11th November 1918: The interior of Marshall Ferdinand Foch's railway carriage in which the armistice was signed, at Compiegne.(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Date created: 11 Nov 1918
46Hitler entering the RR car at Compiegne where he had the French surrender in WWII. Then he blew the whole thing up.
47SEC. 3 - THE WAR AT HOME I. MOBILIZING INDUSTRY, LABOR, AND CONSERVING FOOD & FUEL A.) Once the U.S. entered the war, the gov’t. set up programs to finance the war, conserve scarce resources, & to redirect industry and labor toward wartime production. A huge propaganda campaign to support the war and intolerance of antiwar opinions also spread across the nation. 1.) Money for the war effort was raised by taxes and by selling war bonds (borrowing from the people). a.) Taxes were put on CORPORATIONS, TOBACCO, AMUSEMENTS, ALCOHOLIC DRINKS, R.R.TIX., TELEPHONE & TELEGRAPH MESSAGES. These taxes raised about 1/4 of the cost of the war. b.) War Bonds were sold and raised about $23 billion for the war (almost 2/3rds of the cost) (1.) LIBERTY LOAN DRIVE & VICTORY LOAN DRIVE were the largest.
48circa 1918: Actors Douglas Fairbanks ( ) and Mary Pickford ( ) look over their shoulders and smile while holding telegrams. The telegrams were sent to accept their offer to campaign for the Liberty Loan War Bond drive during World War I. (Photo by Hirz/Getty Images)
492.) The government also set up an intricate system of administrations to mobilize the country’s resources.a.) WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD - established in 1917 by war’s end the Board had regulated the production of 30,000 commodities.Controlled American manufacturing.b.) WAR FINANCE CORP. - loaned public funds to businesses manufacturing war materials.c.) EMERGENCY FLEET CORP - built ships faster than German U-Boats could sink them.d.) THE R.R. ADMINISTRATION - operated the R.R.’s as a single system - reorganized the lines, controlled rates & wages.e.) THE FUEL ADMINISTRATION - urged a larger production of coal & oil and encouraged greater economies in their use.f.) NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD - established in April, arbitrated disputes between workers and employers.g.) THE WAR LABOR POLICIES BOARD - established general policies affecting wages, hours & working conditions.h.) FOOD ADMINISTRATION - headed by Herbert Hoover - was responsible for civilian & military supply of food. Encouraged VICTORY GARDENS, WHEATLESS WEDNESDAYS & MEATLESS MONDAYS, limited the sale of sugar & other commodities.i.) COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION - was a PROPAGANDA APPARATUS used to convince the country of the necessity of war & the depth ofGerman depravity.
503.) Congress also adopted measures to control those who spoke out against the war effort. a.) ESPIONAGE ACT - passed in June, a person could go to jail for up to 20 years and face a $10,000 fine if they: (1) interfered w/ the draft (2) tried to provoke disloyalty b.) SEDITION ACT - passed in May, was to strengthen the Espionage Act. a person faced the same penalties if they: (1) obstructed the sale of war bonds (2) incited insubordination (3) discouraged recruiting (4) said or printed anything “considered” disloyal 4.) Under these laws the justice dept. arrested over 1,000 people. 200 IWW members including their Pres. “Big Bill” Haywood were arrested. Among the others were: a.) VICTOR BERGER - a socialist congressman from Wisconsin received a 20 year sentence for publishing antiwar articles in his newspaper, the Milwaukee Leader. b.) EUGENE V. DEBS - Socialist Party Leader & Pres. of the American Railway Union received a 10 year sentence for making a speech against the war. c.) SCHENCK V. UNITED STATES, the supreme Court found these laws to be constitutional during times of war.
51John Meintz, punished during World War I -- tarred and feathered for not supporting war bond drives, ca ca (NARA)
52 SEC. 4 - THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS I. WILSON’S FOURTEEN POINTS A.) After the communists seized control of Russia, they published a series of secret treaties that had been signed by the Allied powers before the war began. These treaties outlined in detail how the Allies planned to divide the spoils of war if they won. Pres. Wilson chose this opportunity to lay before the world what he firmly believed was ”THE ONLY POSSIBLE PROGRAM FOR WORLD PEACE” - his 14 points.1.) OPEN NEGOTIATIONS2.) FREEDOM OF THE SEAS3.) REMOVAL OF TRADE BARRIERS4.) REDUCTIONS OF ARMAMENTS5.) IMPARTIAL ADJUSTMENT OF ALL COLONIAL CLAIMS6.) EVACUATION OF & NONINTERVENTION IN RUSSIA7.) RESTORATION OF BELGIUM8.) RESTORATION OF FRANCE9.) ADJUSTMENT OF THE ITALIAN FRONTIER10.) AUTONOMOUS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE VARIOUS NATIONAL GROUPS OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE.11.) RESTORATION OF RUMANIA, SERBIA, & MONTENEGRO12.) SETTLEMENT OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE, INCLUDING SELF- DETERMINATION FOR ALL SUBJECT PEOPLE.13.) REESTABLISHMENT OF POLAND W/ ACCESS TO THE SEA.♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ 14.) FORMATION OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
53II. THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE A.) The Paris Peace Conference met from January 18, 1919 until June 28, 1919, all the major decisions to come out of the conference were made by the “BIG FOUR”. 1.) GREAT BRITAIN = PRIME MINISTER DAVID LLOYD GEORGE - He wanted a vindictive peace and promised the British voters that they would “get-even” with Germany for starting the war. He also had no intention of cutting down Britain’s navy to accept Wilson’s idea of “FREEDOM OF THE SEAS”. 2.) FRANCE = PREMIER GEORGES CLEMENCEAU - He believed the only way to protect France was to crush German. He though Wilson was a hopeless innocent. 3.) ITALY = PRIME MINISTER VITTORIO ORLANDO - wanted to acquire territory that had been secretly promised to Italy when it joined the Allied side in ) UNITED STATES = PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON - He wanted a continuing peace & democratic development. He wanted his 14 points adopted and he wanted the formation of the League of Nations.
55B.) Most of the conference was hampered by the Secret Treaties made between the Allies when the war first began. Under these treaties the Allies agreed to divide the spoils of victory.1.) GREAT BRITAIN - was to take over all of Germany’s colonies except those in the Pacific. some of the Pacific colonies went to Japan.2.) FRANCE, RUSSIA, SERBIA, & ITALY - were to enlarge their national boundaries at the expense of Germany & Austria-Hungary.3.) GERMANY - was to make huge payments (REPARATIONS) to the Allies to compensate for damages resulting from the war.
56III. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES, JUNE 28, 1919 A.) The Treaty of Versailles showed the results of bargaining between Wilson o one side & Lloyd George, Clemenceau, & Orlando on the other. This treaty & other related treaties, made important changes in the map of the world. 1.) Germany lost all of its colonies in AFRICA, THE FAR EAST, ALSACE-LORRAINE, & THE SAAR BASIN. But these colonies were to be under a MANDATE SYSTEM. a.) Mandate System - required the new owners to account for their colonial administration to the League of Nations. 2.) France received all rights to the Saar basin, with its coal deposits, for 15 years at which time the people who lived there would vote as to which country they wished to belong. 3.) Territory was taken from Germany & given to POLAND to form the POLISH CORRIDOR TO THE BALTIC SEA. Poland itself became a newly independent state ( Along w/ LATVIA, LITHUANIA, & ESTONIA) 4.) Germany had to pay large reparations for war damages ($33 Billion) - these reparations were one of the causes of the worldwide depression of the `1920’s. 5.) WAR GUILT CLAUSE - forced Germany to acknowledge full responsibility for starting the war. It stripped German of its navy & merchant marine & allowed Germany an army of only 100,000 men. 6.) The COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS was written into the Treaty of Versailles.
58B.) There were related treaties made with Germany’s allies which also helped to reshape the map of Europe. 1.) AUSTRIA- would not initiate or consent to union with Germany. 2.) HUNGARY - cut down its borders by 3/4ths and its people by 2/3rds to form the new states of CZECHOSLOVAKIA & YUGOSLAVIA some also went to RUMANIA 3.) BULGARIA - lost territory to GREECE, YUGOSLAVIA & TO RUMANIA 4.) TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE) - had to liberate all Arab States. Most of these came under English & French Mandates.
60C.) Another part of the Treaty of Versailles was the Covenant of the League of Nations. According to this covenant: 1.) the League would have headquarters at Geneva, Switzerland and would provide international machinery to make war less likely. 2.) SECRETARIAT = an administrative & secretarial staff 3.) ASSEMBLY = each member nation had one vote 4.) COUNCIL = executive body w/ 5 permanent members & other nations were also represented by means of rotating membership. (5 PERMANENT MEMBERS WERE TO BE: FRANCE, GREAT BRITAIN, ITALY, JAPAN, & THE U.S.) 5.) PERMANENT COURT OF INTERNAL JUSTICE and other agencies associated w/a the League dealt w/ such issues a reducing armaments & improving conditions of health & labor throughout the world. Trying to abolish slavery & the narcotics trade, supervise the welfare of people from colonies that head been taken away from their former rulers. 6.) GERMANY & THE SOVIET UNION were excluded from League Membership. 7.) The Covenant of the League DID NOT outlaw war, but each member nation had to agree to the following terms of the covenant. a.) to recognize the right of each member to bring any threat to peace to the attention of the League. b.) to submit dangerous disputes to ARBITRATION c.) to refrain from war until 3 months AFTER THE ARBITERS rendered their decision. d.) to renounce war w/ nations NOT complying w/ the decisions of the league e.) ARTICLE 10 - each member guarantees the existing political boundaries of the other members.
61D. ) The League of Nations was NOT a perfect organization D.) The League of Nations was NOT a perfect organization. It had several serious weaknesses. Among them were: 1.) Taking action against an aggressor was almost impossible because: a.) the term “AGGRESSOR” was not clearly defined. b.) the council could only RECOMMEND that nations take action but could not compel them to act. c.) any council member could block the wishes of the other members (UNANIMOUS VOTE NEEDED) 2.)Guarantee of existing political boundaries was a problem because when the map of Europe was redrawn some people found themselves as citizens of another nation.. If they didn’t want to belong to their new country that had no way to secure changes in the national boundaries. 3.)It’s failure to provide adequate machinery for recommending solutions to economic problems that might lead to war a.) TARIFF BARRIERS, TRADE RIVALRIES, & IMPERIALISM - still existed & the league could do no more than to study the problem. 4.) Failure to include the Soviet Union and Germany as member nations. 5.) the League was not able to tackle problems of reducing armaments.
62IV. THE SENATE REJECTS THE TREATY & THE LEAGUE A.) In July, 1919 Pres. Wilson returned to the United States & asked the U.s. Senate to approve the Treaty of Versailles thus brining the U.S. into the League of Nations. 1.) Republican Senators led by SENATOR HENRY CABOT LODGE OF MASSACHUSETTS, head of the FOREIGN RELATIONS COMMITTEE, opposed the League of Nations. 2.) These senators said that Article Ten of the League Covenant would involve the U.S. in European Affairs. (Article 10 is the one that said each member guarantees the existing political boundaries of the other members). 3.) The Senate offered amendments to the Treaty to allow the U.S. to be a member of the League without getting the U.S. involved in Another European War. a.) Pres. Wilson refused to accept the Senate’s Compromises to the treaty. b.) Wilson began a country wide tour trying to get the people to support the league & vote for the Democrats in the next congressional election. (1) during the tour Pres. Wilson suffered a stroke & became bed- ridden. 4.) the Senate DID NOT ratify the Treaty & the U.S. stayed out of the League of Nations. a.) the war w/ Germany officially ended on JULY 2,1921 when Congress passed a joint resolution stating that hostilities were over. It was at this time that American troops were called home from occupied Allied territory & from Russia (Soviet Union) where they had been helping the White Army in its civil war against the Communist Red Army.
63B.) In the ELECTION OF 1920 Wilson hoped the people would vote for the democrats and the major difference between the two party candidates was their stand on the Treaty & the League. 1.) REPUBLICANS - WARREN G. HARDING, Senator from Ohio who opposed U.S. entry into the League. 2.) DEMOCRATS - JAMES M. COX, Governor of Ohio who fought vigorously for the League. 3.) RESULTS: Harding = 66% of the popular vote & 404 Electoral votes Cox = 34 % of the popular vote & 127 electoral votes